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The Story of a 
Pantry Shelf 



R^(5V3l 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2010 



http://www.archive.org/details/storyofpantrysheOObutt 




^\ .\ iniHvim i)f f)fi/ifry shelfes 
\^ frntn Maine to California, a 
comparatively few nationally famous 
products are consistently to be found. 



The stories of these businesses that 
have won this uniformity of favor 
the country over constitute one of 
the epics of American enterprise. 



The Story of 
a Pantry Shelf 

An Outline History 
of Grocery Specialties 



BUTTERICK 

New York 



Copyright, 1925 
by The Butterick Publishing Company 



An Evolution of 
Five Decades 

When the American housewife of today stands before her 
well-stocked pantry shelf, she gives little thought to the very 
different picture that met her grandmother's eyes fifty years 
ago. 

Fifty years ago sanitary, sealed packages had never been 
seen. "Down street'' at the grocery store a request for a pound 
of soda biscuits would have on occasion dislodged the cat from 
pacific slumber in the cracker-box. A sugar barrel open 
alongside was impartially hospitable to flies and dirt the whole 
day through. There was no white sugar; only mealy, soft, 
brown sugar, and it came only in barrels. Even oatmeal was 
hardly known; sometimes the wealthy had "Scotch Oats," but 
it was expensive. Vinegar and black molasses were trudged 
home in pail or demijohn. 

Kitchen cabinets were unheard of; there were only cup- 
boards. And a ledge in the well or a damp cellar had to 
essay the cooling of foodstufifs now more efficiently protected 
by inviting white refrigerators. 

In the homes of that day there were no furnaces. Instead 
"base-burners" and fireplaces did duty. Electric light and 
gas were unknown ; the homes of the better sort used wax can- 
dles. For the rest tallow "dips" were good enough, and were 
regularly made in the kitchen. 

Cake-soap was a curiosity known only in the larger cities. 
For the most part, the American housewife made her own 
"soft soap" with the lye she produced from the wood ashes 
from stove and fireplace. 

It has been a far cry from this to present-day gleaming 
kitchens with their snowy white tile, their gas and electric 

5 



ranges and many utilities for labor saving. And what a con- 
trast with today's well stocked pantry shelves, lined with ser- 
ried rows of standard packaged products known throughout 
the land for their purity and excellence! 



What has brought about this great change? 

Principally there have been three factors — 

the enterprise of American manufacturers 

the power of advertising 

the influence of the woman's periodical 

In this book we have undertaken to gather the histories of 
some of these better-known products whose names are house- 
hold words today — to show you some aspects of the business 
enterprise that has built these great commercial successes. 
The stories are at once romantic and significant to every 
student of business methods. 

These are not our stories — they are autobiographies of suc- 
cess. We have taken the privilege of an introductory presen- 
tation of the part that the Butterick Publications have borne 
in this great development. But after that we have brought 
our characters on the stage to tell you their own stories in 
their own way. 

Then, like Baliefif in the Chauve-Souris, we stand aside and 
saying "ver' goot audjence," wave the performers to their 
task. 



If 



CONTENTS 



Foreword: An Evolution of Five Decades 



iNTRODUCTIOxN 
Foods 



A Great National Influence for 



The Stories of the Specialties: 

American Kitchen Products Company 

Armour and Company . 

Beech-Nut Packing Company . 

The William G. Bell Company 

The Borden Company . 

Joseph Burnett Company 

Burnham & Morrill Company 

California Fruit Growers' Exchange 

California Walnut Growers' Association 

Calumet Baking Powder Company 

Campbell Soup Company 

Canada Dry Ginger Ale, Inc. 

Carnation Milk Products Company 

Cheek-Neal Coffee Company . 

The Clicquot Club Company . 

The Coca Cola Company 

Colgate & Company 

J. & J. Colman, Ltd. 

Cream of Wheat Company 

Curtice Brothers Company 

Diamond Crystal Salt Company 

Dwinell-Wright Company 

Fels & Co. .... 

Fleischmann Company . 

Florida Citrus Exchange 

The Foulds Company . 

Gilpin, Langdon & Company 

Gold Dust Corporation 

Gorton Pew Fisheries Company 

Charles Gulden, Inc. 

H. J. Heinz Company 

7 



Page 

• • 5 

Better 

• 9 

25 

28 

32 

35 

39 

43 

45 

48 

51 

54 

57 

61 

65 

68 

71 

75 

78 

81 

84 

87 

89 

92 

96 

99 

103 

107 

112 

115 

118 

124 

127 



TuF Stories of the Specialties: (Continued) 



The Hills Hrothers Company 

Hires Company .... 

The Jell-O Compan\ 

The Junket Folks 

Charles B. Knox 

Kraft Cheese Company 

Francis H. Lej^^ett & Company 

Libby, McNeil & Libby 

Loose-Wiles Biscuit Compaii\ 

Minute Tapioca Company 

Enoch Morgan's Sons Company 

National Biscuit Company 

National Coffee Roasters' Association 

Peet Brothers Company 

Pet Milk Company 

Phenix Cheese Corporation 

Pillsbury Flour Mills Company 

Postum Cereal Company 

Procter & Gamble 

The Royal Baking Powder Company 

The Rumford Company 

The C. F. Sauer Company 

The Skinner Manufacturing Company 

Sun-Maid Raisin Growers of California 

Swift (Sc Company 

The William Underwood Company 

G. Washington Coffee Refining Company 

The Welch Grape Juice Company . 

The Wheatena Company 

Williamson Candy Company 



. 130 

. 135 

. 138 

. 141 

. 144 

. 147 

. 151 

. 154 

. 157 

. 160 

. 164 

. 166 

. 169 

. 172 

. 175 

. 177 

. 179 

. 182 

. 185 

. 189 

. 192 

. 195 

. 199 

. 202 

. 205 

. 209 

. 212 

. 215 

. 219 

. 222 



INTRODUCTION 

A Great National Influence 
for Better Foods 

Have IV e an American Dish f 

There is not, strictly speaking, such a thing as American 
cooking. 

There is French cooking and German cooking, and Italian 
cooking and Chinese cooking — at least to the extent that dishes 
cooked in the manner of each of these nations have distin- 
guished characteristics readily familiar to the knowing. But 
of American cooking we have none. 

True, we have Southern cooking and New England cook- 
ing; but in respect to culinary practice generally, these United 
States are not united. Like The Great American Novel, The 
Great American Dish has remained steadfastly sectional. 

There is, nevertheless, quite evidently under way a trend 
and a tendency to a type of cooking that is as distinctly Ameri- 
can as Colonial architecture. Ford cars and the movies. 

The nucleus of this movement has been in the departments 
of home economics in our leading co-educational and state uni- 
versities and normal schools; and its propagation has been 
chiefly through the culinary and domestic science features in 
our leading women's magazines. 

Appraising dietary values, testing and sifting cooking re- 
cipes, and methods of every kind, these schools have acted as 
a clearing house of existing information. Selecting the good 
and rejecting the bad, they have been steadily developing and 
perfecting a new cuisine that is now taking on a national 
character. 




Martha Van Rexsselaer 

Editor, Home Makers' Department , The Delineator 



As director of the New York State 
College of Home Economics at Cor- 
nell University, Martha Van Rensse- 
laer has earned national and interna- 
tional eminence. 

If^ith Miss Flora Rose, she served 
under Herbert Hoover on the State 
Food Commission during the war 



and later became head of the Division 
of Food Conservation of the United 
States Food Administration. 

Some idea of her standing may be 
obtained from the fact that she was 
not long ago named by the League of 
Women Voters as one of America's 
twelve greatest living women. 



10 



And every year these schools and universities send out 
thousands upon tens of thousands of young women — who take 
back into their communities a new knowledge of home eco- 
nomics and new principles of better cooking; while our great 
national periodicals aid them in disseminating to the greater 
millions new ways of cooking and home-keeping. 

Chief source and inspiration in the movement, leading in 
the originality and authority of its work is the New York 
State College of Home Economics of Cornell University, 
under the direction of Martha Van Rensselaer and Flora 
Rose. 

Educating the Kitchen 
It is now twenty-five years since Martha Van Rensselaer 
started her class in home economics in the basement of one 
of the buildings at Cornell. Tradition has it that the only fur- 
niture was a table and two chairs. Of a certainty, the begin- 
nings were humble. 

Today, however, there is an extensive plant, a large faculty 
and hundreds of students. Under the leadership of Miss Van 
Rensselaer and Miss Flora Rose, an authority on nutrition, 
this pioneer school has steadily grown and has exerted a great 
influence direct as well as indirect on the training of women 
throughout the country. Among those who attend the College 
of Home Economics are teachers, hospital and nursery direc- 
tors, dietitians, parents and home makers. And the studies 
include housing, housefurnishing and management, cooking 
and the science of nutrition, clothing, recreation and financial 
administration of the home, as well as child training. 

A Great Influence 
Still Further Multiplied 
The news of these activities at Cornell — of the testing of 
new labor-saving equipment, of new cooking and housekeep- 
ing methods of various kinds — is carried to more than a mil- 
lion women each month through articles by Miss Van Rensse- 
laer and her staff at Cornell in The Delineator. 

Miss Van Rensselaer, as Editor of the Home Makers' De- 
partment of The Delineator, is enabled to exert one of the 

11 



great educational forces for higher culinary standards brought 
to bear on American women. Through The Delineator, Miss 
Van Rensselaer has multiplied a thousand-fold the effective- 
ness of her accomplishments at Cornell. 

The material drawn upon for these articles has principally 
to do with cooking: the preparing of new recipes, new combi- 
nations of foods, new menus and the determining of nutritive 
values. The service itself, however, really extends beyond the 
menu to every problem of the kitchen and the table. Indeed, 
the Practice House, where students learn housekeeping in its 
every phase, even includes the complete care of a baby, 
adopted each year by Cornell for the benefit of these "moth- 
ers" who, under the direction of trained Home Economics 
women, feed, bathe, dress and tend an infant from the tender 
age of two weeks throughout the session. 

What a deep influence these activities exert upon the living 
standards of America! 

What a proud achievement for The Delineator through 
Miss Van Rensselaer's identitv with its editorial staff to assume 




Class in Home Economics at (lornell University 



12 




(c) Underwood & Undt-rwood. 



Mrs. William Brown Meloney 

Editor, Hie Delineator 



From "PFho's Mho in America": 
Mem. stajf IVas/iinr/ton (D. C.) 
Post, 1899; Denver Evening Post. 
1900; mem. U. S. Senate Press Gal- 
lerv and I'Fashington corr., 1900-1; 
staff N. Y. Sun, 1901-4; Editor 
IVoman's Magazine, 1914-20; also 
associate editor Everybody's, 1917-20 ; 
editor The Delineator, 1920-. Deco- 
rated, 1917 , Medaille de Charleroi for 
service in behalf of Belf/ian Children ; 
1919, Ordre de la Heine Elisabeth 
for distinguished service to Belgian 
cause in United States; Chevalier 



Eegion d'Honneur (France). Or- 
ganizer Marie Curie Radium Com. 
(for purchase of gramme of radium). 
Director The Child Foundation, 
Am. Child Health Assn.; founder 
and vice-president Better Homes in 
America; mem. Nat. Institute of So- 
cial Sciences, Nat. League business 
and Professional If^omen. . . . 

Decorated: Medaille d'Honneur 
des Assurances Sociales, Armistice 
Day, 1924: Cold Medal for State 
Service (France), December, 1924; 
recognition of Better Homes work. 



13 




the leadership of this remarkable movement! And what a 
source of satisfaction to Miss Van Rensselaer to realize that in 
The Di'/ifwafor she has a medium for spreading on so great a 
scale the influence of the fine work done under her direction 
at Cornell ! 

71ie Delineator — a Great 

National Influence on Foods 

It is generally recognized that The Delineator is one of the 

14 



great women's periodicals of America. Its circulation is one 
of the largest and the character of its circulation among the 
finest. 

What is not so generally recognized is that in respect to culi- 
nary and housekeeping influence, it is one of the most influen- 
tial of American periodicals. 

In actual editorial lineage, in proportion of food features to 
total editorial contents, as well as in the quality of the features 
themselves. The Delineator's articles on home economics are 
first. 

The Delineator — Predominantly 
A Service Publication 
The predominantly service character of The Delineator has 
behind it the support of history and tradition. The Delineator 
was the first American magazine to make a feature of the 
service article. 

The Delineator commenced publication in 1866 and led the 
way with Godey's Lady Book and Harper's Bazar into the 
"elite" American homes of the day. 

In those "Early Pullman" days when fashion was the sole 
editorial topic, The Delineator again was pioneer with the 
first "service article" in women's publications. 

So that it has come about in a process of consistent evolution 
that through the years The Delineator has developed along the 
lines of service. It is fully in line with Delineator tradition 
that today in the ratio of its service to its entertainment fea- 
tures. The Delineator is easily the leader among national 
women's periodicals. 

Time and uncommon gifts have combined in preparing 
Mrs. Meloney, Editor of The Delineator, for the responsi- 
bilities of her position. She is a wife, a mother and a writer, 
with a brilliant journalistic background. 

An Allied Force of Added Influence: 
The Designer 
The Delineator and The Designer are considered by adver- 
tisers as a unit. But while they represent a single advertising 
unit and are used by many advertisers in combination, they are 

15 






Mrs. Ciiristixk Fredkrick 

Iidi/rjr, Home Makiiit/ Department , The Desujner 



Mrs. Frederick enjoys a nation- 
iL'ide fame as a home economist. She 
is knoivn all over the country as a 
lecturer and a speaker: and has ad- 
dressed scores of icomen's cluhs, 
chambers of commerce and other 
business organizations. 

She is, nevertlieless, a mother icith 
a family to care for, and so brings to 



her work an arerageness in point of 
view that makes her work addition- 
ally helpful to every-day women. 

At her home, which is known as 
A pplecroft Experiment Station, she 
maintains a practical home laboratory 
u'here 1 ,S00 different products, run- 
ninf/ from mechanical appliances to 
food stuffs, have been tested. 



16 



of course two separate and distinct magazines whose origins 
were independent, whose growths have been and are competi- 
tive, whose editorial stafifs are separate, whose personalities 
are distinct and whose clienteles are non-duplicating. 

The Designer, like The Delineator, is predominantly a 
service periodical. Its purpose is primarily to contribute to 
those interests of American women which have to do with the 
practical aspects of living; of making better homes to live in, 
of having finer clothes to wear, of enjoying better and more 
wholesome food to eat, of raising happier and healthier babies 
— in brief, the realities of women's existence. 

The Designer has, however, a color and flavor of its own. 
Except for the fundamental aim of service which it shares 
with The Delineator, it is in all other respects strikingly indi- 
vidual, its departments, its fashion service and its fiction all 
taking on a personality which has earned for it in the past few 
years one of the most remarkable growths among women's 
magazines. 

In the combined excellence and popularity of its fiction, 
indeed, it has earned a distinction that sets it quite apart. Dr. 
Martin Arrowsmith by Sinclair Lewis, for instance, which 
first appeared serially in The Designer has been acclaimed bv 
critics as one of the great novels of recent years — and it has 
been at the same time by all odds the best selling novel of the 
season, both in England and America. 

But perhaps the most individual characteristic of The De- 
signer is its concern with household interests — with the deco- 
ration of the home, with its equipment with practical utilities ; 
and if one thing is to be mentioned above others, with the 
subject of foods. 

Mrs. Christine Frederick 
and The Applecroft Experiment Station 

In fact, Mrs. Christine Frederick, Editor of the Home Mak- 
ing Department of The Designer, enjoys a distinction and 
prestige as a home economist that makes her among the most 
prominent in her field of activity among all American women. 
At her home, which is known as The Applecroft Experiment 

17 



Kitchen ill the 

ILvpcrinicnt 
Station 




More thcui 
r,Sou tests 
have been 
made in tlie 
A 1^ pie croft 
KitcJien 



Station, and which is nationally famous, she makes practical 
tests of household equipment, investigates different kinds 
of products, and writes the results of her studies for a very 
broad audience. Since she is, moreover, a mother with a 
family and her home to care for, she is practical, sensible, 
helpful. 

It has been a great tribute to the editorial efi'ectiveness of 
The Dcsiijner that in a period of less than three years it has 

18 



nearly doubled its circulation, growing from a circulation of 
276,676 in 1922 to a present circulation of 514,017. 

The Butterick Combination 
The Butterick Combination, a term used by advertising men 
and only by advertising men to designate the combined circu- 
lations of The Delineator^ and the Designer, offers advertisers 
a circulation guarantee of 1,700,000 copies monthly, 95 per 
cent net paid. 

In amount, it is one of the largest circulations available in 
the national market. 



Graphic Chart showing three pear circiz/ation growth Oj 
Butterick Qmk nation, Jan uarj/ 1922 , December 1924, mc/asiue 




19 




Mrs. Gahrikli^e Allard Griswom) 

Editor, The Desu/ner 



Few women are as well equipped 
to edit a great magazine like The 
Designer as Mrs. Griswold. She is 
a Xi'ife and home maker, and has a 
vital and understanding interest in 
the problems of her readers. She is 
also a practical business U'oman with 
wide experience in merchandising 
and editorial lines. 



.Is a ivar ivorker in France, in tJie 
field and in executive positions, as a 
successful advertising iconian in Neiv 
York, and as Managing Editor of 
The Delineator, she has had unusual 
opportunity to gain a keen insight 
into women's problems, an under- 
standing of their needs and a deep 
sympathy with their interests. 



20 



In quality of circulation, it enjoys a leadership in the very 
first rank of American periodicals. 

In the nature of the culinary influence brought to bear, it is, 
through its remarkable editorial leadership, easily first. 

And tributary as both magazines are to what is perhaps the 
greatest influence for an interest in better food standards on 
the part of American women, the advertiser is enabled through 
the use of The Butterick Combination to tie into the very heart 
and center of a movement that is making for nation-wide 
acceptance of really superior food products. 

What Miss Van Rensselaer and her staff sponsor, what Mrs. 
Frederick tests and approves, what The Delineator and The 
Designer audiences adopt is sure of nation-wide acceptance 
and use. What they reject or ignore takes the very hardest 
road to the national market. 

To Win the Marketing Cooperation 
of the Retail Grocer: 

The Progressive Grocer 
How important is the retail grocer in the distribution of food 
products? 

Is he a slot-machine — or an effective merchandising force 
that must be taken into consideration? 

What influence has he today on the sale of advertised prod- 
ucts and what part does he play in making consumer adver- 
tising effective? 

It is with the belief that the retail grocer has it within his 
power to extend the cooperation that will effectualize a con- 
sumer advertising campaign, that he exerts that last measure 
of constructive influence that is the margin between success 
and failure that Butterick presents The Progressive Grocer 
as the link between a national consumer campaign and fifty 
thousand of the most important grocery distributors in the 
United States. 

The competition of brands of varying acceptability to the 
housewife has brought the retail situation to the point where 
the grocer today can be and is an important factor in determin- 
ing which of the several popular brands his customers shall 
use. 

21 




Tixii charge of It jruivn s 
<i( thi: age of IS yoirs 




grocer am easily 










■*• ^^^K^ -'^^ ^ Cutting dtnn colledion toiSes hy 

^^^ care in granting credit 

Him /,. .„„(■,■ ,/„■ icUf-h.nH- ■ ■\:- 



Grocery Store, 



1 ,■,.■.■ «( ^'" 



StlKt 









llir<mgh ihc agei 



K . 






rtlmjs 



Every issue of 
The Progresssive 
Grocer carries to 
50,000 grocers 
stories that are 
helpful and al- 
ways of human 
interest. 



■^M 




*<«' " blind ,nv.-cr 




Shall he stock and push a particular brand? Since few are 
indispensable to his trade's good will, it remains with him for 
the most part to select those products which he believes to be 
superior and more readily saleable ; and since retail grocers are 
just like all other salesmen in that they sell best the things that 
they know most about, it is above all things necessary to com- 
municate to them the information and enthusiasm of which 
sales are made. If he believes your product to be standard., 
if he believes that you have created a market for it, a word 
from him will turn the scale almost every time. 

The Progressive Grocer supplies the medium with which 
to earn the good will of fifty thousand of the most important 
grocers, jobbers and brokers in the national market. It is a 
human, practical counselor on the business problems that con- 
front the grocer every way. It is built pocket size and has 
attractive human interest covers and it tackles the dry subject 
of running a grocery store with a vim and a sparkle that lifts 
the grocery business out of the commonplace. It inspires the 
grocer to better methods and shows him by practical example 
how to accomplish them. It gives him instruction in better 
display, better accounting, tells him how to approach the sub- 
ject of turn-over from a practical point of view. It gives him 
sales ideas that have brought business to grocers everywhere. 
It gives him stories of successful grocers from one end of the 
country to the other and it tells him how they became success- 
ful. It gives him humorous anecdotes about the grocery busi- 
ness, amusing as it instructs. It gets down to the man behind 
the counter, the clerk. It reaches down, that is, to the last link 
in the selling chain between manufacturer and consumer. 

In a word, it is worth the grocer's while and he likes it. 
* * * -» * 

These, the three publications of the Butterick Publication 
Company, to help the food manufacturer on the shortest route 
to market. They represent a great advertising force. 



23 




How Steero Was Steered 
to Success 

The Growth of Steero in Popularity 
Has Beejj in Large Part Due to the 
Exploitation of New Uses: Originally 
a Bouillon Cube, It Now Enjoys 
Widespread Favor as a Flavoring 

Before Steero Bouillon Cubes were introduced in the United 
States they were a household staple in a number of European 
countries. Already widely accepted by nations famed for 
their love of tasty, piquant foods, it was natural to suppose 
that this country would welcome Steero. 

In 1909 the American rights were acquired by the Ameri- 
can Kitchen Products Company, and a carefully planned 
merchandising effort put Steero on dealers' shelves in many 
parts of the country. With national distribution assured the 
American Kitchen Products Company began to advertise in 
the weeklies and women's magazines. The idea of a tasty 

25 



bouillon flavored with beef juices, vegetables and spices, which 
could be prepared in an instant, soon won the favor of the 
American housewife. 

People made their first purchases of Steero Bouillon Cubes 
because with them bouillon was easy to prepare. One taste of 
bouillon made from the cubes showed them that in addition 
to being easv to prepare, Steero Bouillon was most pleasing to 
the palate. Thus, while the novelty of quick, easy preparation 
caused many people to give Steero a trial, it was the delight- 
ful, piquant flavor of the bouillon which built up the large 
volume of repeat sales and soon established Steero Bouillon 
Cubes as a profitable, (]uick-selling item for merchants all over 
the country. 

In everv Steero advertisement appeared an offer to send 
free sample cubes. With every sample went a letter telling 
how to prepare Steero Bouillon and urging the recipient to 
keep a supplv of Steero Cubes always on hand, buying them 
from local merchants. 

Not long after the introduction of Steero Bouillon Cubes 
in this country housewives discovered that in addition to their 
use as a delicious bouillon, the cubes, when dissolved in such 
dishes as soups, stews, omelets, sauces, salads and fish and meat 
dishes, gave a new, rich flavor to the food. This new use 
opened an even wider field, and the food-flavoring idea was 
presented in the advertising. Today, with every sample of 
Steero Bouillon Cubes and with every package of Steero goes a 
folder containing recipes of a few of the toothsome dishes 
whose flavor is enhanced by adding Steero Cubes. 

The use of Steero Cubes as a flavoring grew to such pro- 
portions that there developed a real need for a Steero Cook 
Book. Today the Steero Cook Book is one of the most widely 
used of the cook books published by food manufacturers. The 
Steero book was very carefully prepared, many of the recipes 
having been compiled and tested by leading culinary experts. 
The b(jok is sold for ten cents, and is mentioned in Steero 
advertising. Every day, the thousands of copies of the Steero 
Cook Book now in the hands of housewives all over the coun- 
try are doing missionary work for Steero Bouillon Cubes, help- 

26 



ing to build the constantly increasing sales of this popular 
product. 

Another sales builder is an ingenious wall rack recently 
devised and supplied to dealers by the American Kitchen 
Products Company. It is a metal container which holds 
twelve packages of Steero Cubes. The packages are inserted 
at the top of the rack and removed at the bottom. Displayed 
on the dealer's wall, the Steero sales rack is a timelv reminder 
to everyone who enters the store. 

The present popularity of Steero Bouillon Cubes is a good 
example of the results that can be achieved bv taking nothing 
for granted — by mapping out and following a consistently 
sound plan of merchandising, advertising and trade co- 
operation. 



27 




The Eldorado That 
Was Not Gold 

Philip D. Armour Fared Forth to the 
Gold Fields of California in the Rush of 
'49 — but He Found Gold in Carrying 
Food-Stuffs to the Tables of All America 

Recollections of the early days of the packing industry are 
recollections of the indomitable power of men as individuals; 
power such as was an essential part of those pioneers of life 
and industry in the United States who survived the hardships 
with which they were constantly beset. 

A perusal of the history of Armour and Company recalls 
the mental vision of the future necessities of the great Ameri- 
can republic, which sustained men in those arduous days when 
personal contact with their endeavors and eternal vigilance 
were the price of success. 

For several years from 1849 there was a rush of the more 

28 



hardy American spirits from the East to the gold fields of 
California and into the great Northwest. Among those west- 
ward bound was a farmer lad, Philip D. Armour, from New 
York. He went out with an idea that he, too, would dig gold, 
but upon arriving in the gold fields he discovered that the 
surest way to make money was by selling his services, so he 
builded sluices for those who tried to wash gold from the sand 
of their diggings, and soon, with a competence in his pocket, 
he started back, and all the way home the idea of service 
was germinating in his mind, and it occurred to him that there 
could be no more valuable service than that of provisioning 
that great host that was forever marching westward and that 
lesser host that was forever turning eastward, enriched or dis- 
appointed from its quest. 

Milwaukee seemed the logical provisioning point at that 
time — 1863 — and there it may be said the real beginning of 
Armour and Company was made in a partnership between 
P. D. Armour and John Plankinton. But Mr. Armour's vision 
was too broad to be limited by that partnership; his visual- 
ized the vast plains of the western plateau and the Mississippi 
Valley, with their untold possibilities for the production of 
live stock, and he saw the ever-growing congestion of the cities 
of the East — and he realized the necessity of one section of 
the country for the other. It was to help bridge that great 
gap between the producer and the consumer that Armour 
and Company itself was founded in 1867 and located in 
Chicago. 

Packing then was a very simple affair, when viewed from 
the vantage point of today. It was decidedly seasonal and 
consisted almost exclusively of pork packing. Slaughtering 
could only be done in the late fall and winter months, when 
the cold temperature of nature could be used to preserve the 
products. The season's harvest was slaughtered and packed 
in huge barrels, in mountainous piles on prairies near where 
the packing house now stands. 

That conserved the agricultural production of the nation 
to a very great extent and it increased the provisioning possi- 
bilities of the consuming centers, which were, year by year, 

29 




Mr. /■'. lidson White, President 
.Irmoiir & Company 



engaging more briskly in manu- 
facturing. But still that was not 
enough. Some way must be 
found to make the business less 
dependent upon the whims of 
climate, and spurred on by Mr. 
Armour, an employee of the 
company named Joseph Nich- 
olson built, as an experiment, in 
1874 a warehouse which was 
constructed somewhat along the 
lines of an ice box. It was the 
first cold-storage house known 
in the industry, according to the 
recollection of oldtimers and to 
available records. 
The successful operation at that house led to further ex- 
periments and, in 1878, William Davis, of Detroit, patented 
a refrigerator car which he offered to the packers. Armour 
and Company bought a limited number of those cars to begin, 
with the idea of transporting fresh meat from the point of 
slaughter to the point of consumption. It was with great dif- 
ficulty that the railway companies were persuaded to carry 
the cars on their trains, and they absolutely refused to con- 
struct similar cars for the use of the packers. The officials of 
one road, however, were prevailed upon to carry one car to 
Boston, if it were accompanied by the employees of Armour 
and Company and if Armour and Company would assume 
all risk attendant upon the transportation of that carload of 
meat. 

The story of the first trip of that railway car is a romance 
in itself, not the least of the difficulties encountered being the 
necessity of cutting the eaves of the car to let it pass through 
the old Hoosac tunnel. But that one journey proved the 
practicability of transportation under refrigeration, and the 
development of the refrigerator car, as it is known today, 
rapidly followed. Concurrent with that development came 
artificial refrigeration and then the packing industry, as a 

30 



year-around business, became a most important factor in the 
agricultural and industrial history of the world. 

Cattle slaughter began on a widespread scale. The utiliza- 
tion of by-products, which since have come to mean so much 
to mankind in the alleviation of sufifering or in the providing 
of luxuries, was made possible. 

No longer was the producer of live stock in Texas, Kansas, 
Iowa or Montana, or wherever he was located, dependent 
upon his local butcher for a market, but rather were the mar- 
ket places of the world laid open to him through the chan- 
nels of the packing house. 

Scientists were engaged, and still are engaged, in eflforts 
to determine the most valuable uses of every particle of everv 
meat animal. Economists are employed to make it possible 
for the producer of live stock to receive the greatest returns 
for his material and to make it possible for the consumer to 
obtain meat at the lowest possible cost, and they all have 
progressed to the point where the packing industry, with its 
ally, the live stock industry, is the most valuable industry in 
the United States. That progress was not made without a 
fight — grim and stubborn. It has cost the minds of men and 
it has cost the lives of men. The energy of tens of thousands, 
even hundreds of thousands, of men have made it seemingly 
so simple a matter for the machinist in Connecticut, or the 
millionaire in New York, to order bacon and eggs for his 
breakfast or steak or chops for dinner. In that progress is 
included the establishment of hundreds of branch houses of 
Armour and Company, scattered all over the United States; 
thousands of refrigerator cars serving them constantly, and 
a score of plants ceaselessly converting sheep, hogs and cattle 
into lamb, pork and beef. And back of it all are the minds, 
and the skill and labor of 60,000 human beings, bending every 
energy to make the company's service all that producer or 
consumer could desire. 



31 




Where Flavor Rules 
the Roast 

The Beech- Nut Idea — That Perfect 
Flavor in Foods ff^ill Find Its Pub- 
lic — Has Expanded a Country-side 
Venture into a $20,000,000 
Nationally Famed Institution 

The story of Beech-Nut is a typical romance of American 
business. It is the story of several country boys in Cana- 
joharie, New York, "all going in together," to make fine and 
wholesome foods. 

They started with hams; then bacon. The idea of a bacon 
with distinctive flavor just seemed to come up naturally and 
grow up naturally. There was a 40-foot barn that looked 
like a good place to smoke bacon, so these Canajoharie boys 
started to smoke bacon there. No need to hurry about it. 
Lots of time. They took pride in their work. So their bacon 

32 



was very thoroughly cured and smoked in the old genuine 
way, and pretty soon the people up and down the valley 
noticed the difference. Then they couldn't smoke enough of 
it for the folk that wanted it. 

Of course, that marked the beginning of bigger things. But 
through all Beech-Nut history runs the same spirit of thor- 
oughness, the same loyalty to the idea of flavor. This is natu- 
ral, for the same Canajoharie people who founded the business 
are still in control. Bartlett Arkell, one of the original group, 
is Beech-Nut's "first and only president." 

The company was incorporated in 1891 with a capital of 
$10,000. It was first known as the Imperial Packing Com- 
pany, but in 1898 this was superseded by the name "Beech- 
Nut Packing Company," which, in Mr. Arkell's opinion, 
provided a more fitting background of flavor. Meantime, sev- 
eral of the original group withdrew, for, though the products 
sold readily, the little company met many discouraging set- 
backs and its market was merely local. In 1900 the sales of 
the company amounted to $200,000. In 1924 they had in- 
creased at least 90 times. 

The range of Beech-Nut products is surprisingly wide. 
Recognizing that there is a public demand for genuine quality 
in foods, the Beech-Nut motto has been, "Whenever we be- 
lieve we can make a product better than that product is being 
made elsewhere, we go ahead and make it." 

So bacon was followed by peanut butter, and peanut butter 
by jams and jellies. Then came pork and beans, catsup, chili 
sauce, mustard, spaghetti, macaroni, marmalades, caramels, 
fruit drops, mints and chewing gum — and now coffee. 

Obviously, Beech-Nut flavor is not a specific flavor. 
Rather, it is a standard of flavor^ equally applicable to all this 
family of foods and confections. 

It starts way back with the natural foods. Only the best 
may pass the Beech-Nut Portals of Vigilance. Only the finest 
and hardest durum wheat is used in making the various maca- 
roni products. Peanuts are always No. i Spanish and Vir- 
ginia. Beans are No. i Michigan or New York State. Only 
one bacon side out of seven is accepted, on the average. These 

33 




Mr. Bartlctt Arkcll, President 
Bccch-Xiit Packing Co. 



Standards sufficiently indicate 
the quality of raw materials 
used in Beech-Nut products. 

After the selection of mate- 
rials, the next two "ingredients 
of flavor" are skill and pa- 
tience. In the case of Beech- 
Nut Peanut Butter, for instance, 
the greatest skill is needed to in- 
sure a uniform flavor, not only 
in the blending, but in roasting. 
Color is the guide in roasting; 
hence the use of north light to 
judge the exact moment for dis- 
continuing the roast. Equal 
care contributes to the drying of 
macaroni and the coring and skinning of fruits for Beech-Nut 
Jellies. 

Looking backward today, the growth of the Beech-Nut 
Packing Company is directly traceable to the original idea 
that perfect flavor in foods will find its public. Faith in this 
idea, steadfast faith, eventually won the day. When the com- 
pany was organized it was a pure food pioneer, far out in 
advance of many of the food-factory laws which are now 
taken for granted. So, in clinging to its ideals, the struggling 
young company was risking its very existence. But the same 
quality of vision which foresaw the present, with Beech-Nut 
products known in millions of homes from coast to coast and 
beyond the seas — this same vision was triumphant in its an- 
ticipation of governmental requirements in food plants, 
though far exceeding those requirements in its practice. 

The present officers of the Beech-Nut Packing Company, 
associated with it for so many years, are : Bartlett Arkell, pres- 
ident; F. E. Barbour, vice-president; J. S. EUithorp, vice- 
president and treasurer; W. C. Arkell, vice-president and 
secretary. 



34 




The Spice of New England: 

Bell's Poultry Seasoning 

A Recipe of Sixty Years Ago Which 
by Consistent Publicity Has Gained 
a World-Wide Fame and Favor 

The spice recipe that made New England turkey dinner and 
sausage famous for more than two hundred years. This origi- 
nal recipe we placed on the market nearly sixty years ago. 
Now it has ceased to be exclusively New England, because it 
is also a prime favorite with all the incoming peoples — from 
the Northern countries, British Isles, Norway, Sweden, Rus- 
sia; from the Mediterranean countries in the south, and all 
the way between. It combines with the cookery of all nations 
and lends zest and tang and appetite to dressing for fish, game, 
meat and poultry. 

The William G. Bell Company was founded by Mr. Wil- 
liam G. Bell, whose name it bears and who for over fifty years 
was its general manager and director. Four generations of the 
Bell family have been employed in the manufacture of Bell's 
Spiced Seasoning and this has enabled the company to keep 

35 



the high standiird of the Seasoning through all the passing 
years. 

For forty-six years the company occupied the buildings at 
48-54 Commercial Street, Boston, and during that time Mr. 
Bell witnessed many changes in the surrounding businesses as 
well as in Iiis own. He was a progressive, energetic man and 
never hestitated or faltered in putting through a business deal 
which he felt was right, and the steady growth of BelTs Poul- 
try Seasoning from a few hundred pounds the first year to 
its present enormous output shows, in a measure, the skill, en- 
ergy and businesslike qualities of the man. 

Mr. Bell was a charter member of the Boston Chamber of 
Commerce and was the first business man in the market dis- 
trict to use plate glass for his office and display windows, 
which simply showed another example of his progressiveness. 
In 1913 the company moved to larger quarters at 19-21 South 
Market Street. 

In 1 9 14, when war was declared in Europe, shipments of 
the necessary choice herbs and spices from that country were 
curtailed and finally stopped altogether, but through the fore- 
sight of Mr. William G. Bell the company had sufficient 
stock on hand to carry them through two years, when other 
arrangements were made to supply the demand. So the sale 
of the Seasoning is steadily growing and its popularity ever 
increasing as the years roll by. 

In 1870 Mrs. Underwood, the famous cook, served General 
Butler with dressing flavored with BelTs Spiced Poultry Sea- 
soning, and the General said: "A little more stuffing, please; 
this is fine, Mrs. Underwood. 

Thirty-five years later (1901;) we read the following flat- 
tering report from Mrs. W. H. Watson, Yokohama, Japan: "I 
used your dressing for years in America. My mother used it, 
and she thought, as I do, that there is nothing quite so good. 
Curnow Company are our best grocers. I do wish you could 
induce them to buy it." In 1906 J. Curnow & Co., Ltd., 
Yokohama, Japan, wrote: "We have secured a supply of your 
dressing from Seattle and now have it on sale." 

In May, 191 1, F. H. Crane, superintendent parlor, sleep- 

36 



ing and dining cars, the New York, New Haven and Hartford 
Railroad, wrote to Mr. Bell as follows: ''In reply to your let- 
ter of the 2 1 St inst., I would advise that we have been using 
Bell's Poultry Seasoning in our dining cars for a long time 
with good results." 

You will note in what glowing terms the users of Bell's 
Poultry Seasoning speak of it, whether it be housewife, the 
chef in the ordinary restaurant or the high-salaried chef in 
our leading hotels; their opinion is unanimous. In 191 2 E. 
R. Grabow, president E. R. Grabow Company, managers of 
Hotel Empire, Hotel Tuileries, Boston; Hotel Litchfield and 
Myrtle Bank Hotel, Jamaica; New Ocean House, Swamp- 
scott, Massachusetts, wrote: "We take pleasure in endorsing 
Bell's Poultry Seasoning, which is the only one we use in all 
our hotels, and cheerfully recommend it to anyone not using 
it at the present time." 

The satisfaction that Bell's Spiced Seasoning gives is as 
true today as it was in 1876, when J. B. Wistar, steward. 
Grand Central Hotels, New York City, wrote: "I have been 
overpersuaded to try other makes. In every instance, have 
been obliged to either return or throw them away and fall 
back on the old, reliable Bell's Poultry Seasoning." 

During the year 1924 we received over five thousand calls 
for trial packages of our Poultry Seasoning, which we sent 
for ten cents, either in stamps or coin, as well as for copies of 
our recipe book by famous chefs and cooking school teachers. 
These calls came from all parts of the world, mostly from 
places where we have never been represented, this being due, 
in most part, to our national advertising. 

Bell's Seasoning has a world-wide reputation, and when 
once used it is always used. France, Jugo-Slavia, India, 
Java and China yield their choicest herbs and spices to fur- 
nish the ingredients of Bell's Poultry Seasoning, and so pleas- 
ing is its flavor that it is used for countless other purposes in 
addition to the one for which it was originally prepared. 

The present home of the company is 189 State Street, Bos- 
ton, Massachusetts. 

New England tradition has always held that Thanksgiving 

37 



should mean roast turkeys and plenty of good seasoning. A 
very old and famous recipe was given to the public in pack- 
aged form almost sixty years ago, when Mr. William G. 
Bell founded the William G. Bell Company for the purpose 
of promoting the sale of the now famous Poultry Seasoning. 

In davs gone by, the New England housewife was accus- 
tomed to take a pinch of this spice and a pinch of that, and 
results were not always uniform. BelTs Seasoning contains 
the finest spices — spices from Java, China and the Far East — 
all skillfully blended. Naturally, housewives welcomed this 
article, as it removed all guesswork from their cooking. Tt 
made delicious dressing a certainty. 

The sale of BelTs Seasoning is now almost universal. For- 
eign countries buy it and hotels and restaurants everywhere 
use it in their cooking. 

Advertising has played an important part in the success of 
this concern. A consistent policy of publicity has resulted in 
the national sale and distribution of BelTs Seasoning. 



38 




A Really National Food 

Borden's Eagle Brand Condensed and 
Evaporated Milk Are Two Products 
That Have Found Their IV ay into Near- 
ly Every Family in the Country 

It was pity — the source of more than one important invention 
— that first made Gail Borden resolve to find some way of 
preserving milk. 

Returning from a trip to England in 1851, he was greatly 
distressed to see how hundreds of poor immigrants suffered — 
and their babies sickened and died — from lack of fresh milk 
on the long sea voyage. At that time the only way to provide 
milk at sea was to carry cows on the ship, but even then there 
was no ice for keeping the milk, no means of protecting it 
against contamination. Mr. Borden was quick to recognize 
the urgent need of putting this essential, but highly perishable, 
food in a safe form for people everywhere — in large cities, in 

39 



the wilderness, as well as at sea — and he determined to supply 
it. 

The idea of preserving milk by boiling away its water — 
condensing it — came to him one day as he watched a steaming 
teakettle. When he first proposed preparing milk this way by 
evaporation and putting it up in sealed cans so it would keep 
indefinitely, people laughed at him — just as people have 
laughed at all the other inventors of history. But Gail Borden 
did not mind ridicule. Possibly he was used to it. He had 
already invented two concentrated foods to meet the demand 
for such foods for the "gold rushers" — pemmican and "meat 
biscuit" (for which he was awarded a medal at the London 
\\^)rld Fair in 1851). 

He believed in his idea of preserving milk, as he had be- 
lieved in his other inventions, and with typical hardy pio- 
neer spirit started experiments at once in a small Shaker com- 
munity in New York State. He faced appalling discourage- 
ments and difliculties — lack of capital, lack of bacteriological 
knowledge, lack of sanitary methods among dairy farmers. 
He was almost the first person to realize the importance of 
cleanliness in milk and to take steps to secure it. The rules 
which he laid down to farmers in those days have now become 
laws — the basis of our present sanitary regulations. 

After several years of experimenting, Borden finally suc- 
ceeded in perfecting a process for "producing concentrated 
milk by evaporation in vacuo . . . the same having no sugar 
or other foreign matter mixed with it." In 1856 — when he 
was 55 years old — he received a patent for this process, which 
is still the basis of the world's condensed milk industry. 

The first condensary was set up at Wolcottville, Conn. — 
now the city of Torrington — and operated under the name 
Gail Borden & Co. But because sufficient money was not 
forthcoming to operate the factory the plant was abandoned. 

The following year, 1857, a new plant was begun at Burr- 
ville, five miles north of the first factory. Here, in a little 
old mill, the first condensed milk was made and sold to 
the public. At this time Borden met Mr. Jeremiah Milbank, 
a keen business man with practically unlimited financial means 

40 




Mr. Gail Borden 
Founder of Borden's Milk 



at his disposal. Mr. Milbank 
became interested in the busi- 
ness and in 1858 the name of the 
company was changed to the 
New York Condensed Milk 
Co., and an office opened in the 
basement of 173 Canal Street, 
New York City. 

Samples of their first prod- 
uct — unsweetened condensed 
milk — were first carried from 
house to house in New York in 
a handbag and later served from 
40-quart cans on a pushcart at 
25 cents a quart. The unsweet- 
ened product, however — evap- 
orated milk, as it is now called — was not developed to a 
point where it could be put up in sealed cans and marketed 
until the 1890s — some years after Gail Borden's death. The 
first product to be manufactured on a commercial basis and 
sold in sealed containers was the sweetened condensed milk. 

In a short time a larger factory was needed and Borden 
moved to the village of Wassaic, N. Y., which was located on 
the railroad and ofifered better chances for expansion. This 
new condensary opened in June, 1861, just two months after 
the outbreak of the Civil War. The United States Govern- 
ment immediately commandeered their entire output of con- 
densed milk for use in the army and in hospitals. 

In this way people learned to know the value of condensed 
milk and like it far more quickly than would ordinarily have 
happened. Its use spread rapidly and the business increased 
steadily during the fifty years following, with new plants open- 
ing in different parts of the country. In 1899 the company 
was reorganized under the name "Borden's Condensed Milk 
Company." 

Then another war brought sudden and rapid expansion 
again — probably far beyond the wildest dreams of Gail Bor- 
den. The Civil War had made condensed milk a staple food. 

41 



The ^^^)rld War worked wonders for the next Borden product 
— evaporated, or unsweetened condensed milk. Canned milk 
was needed in tremendous quantities, not only for the armies 
of the world, but among civilian populations as well, and 
especially in relief work among refugees in war-stricken 
countries. Sweetened condensed milk could not be made in 
a hurry to meet this sudden demand. The process is too deli- 
cate. Also sugar was at a premium. The result was an enor- 
mous development in evaporated — or unsweetened condensed 
milk. The output of evaporated milk grew from 700,000,000 
pint cans a year at the beginning of the war to 1,900,000,000 
cans at the end of the war period. There has of course been a 
natural reaction after the boom growth — the large part of 
which was export trade — but evaporated milk is firmly estab- 
lished as a staple household commodity, and its use in this 
country is becoming more widespread every year. 

Today the business of canning milk ranks as one of the 
outstanding industries of the country. The Borden Company 
pioneer in the whole movement, is still the leader and largest 
manufacturer of milk products in the world. 

In addition to Eagle Brand Condensed Milk and Evapo- 
rated Milk, the company now makes Skimilflakes (dry skim 
milk in flake form). Malted Milk and Confectionery. 

It also produces and markets bottled milk on a large scale, 
this part of the business being handled by the Farm Products 
Division of the company. 

More than thirty-five model condensaries and feeder sta- 
tions, dotted over the country in the heart of the best dairy sec- 
tions, are busy producing Borden's Milk. In addition, there 
are more than 150 country and city bottling plants, confec- 
tionery and malted milk plants. 

Because of the great variety of its milk products, and its 
long established reputation for purity and quality, the Bor- 
den service today reaches almost every family in the country. 



42 




A Lady Asked for Vanilla 

A Request of 78 Years Ago That 
Brought a New Product to America 
and Laid the Foundations of a 
Business That Today Is ff^orld-wide 

In 1847 a lady who had lived some years in France entered 
the store of Joseph Burnett, the Boston chemist. She said she 
was very anxious to procure a vanilla flavor for her creams, 
sauces and desserts, such as she had been getting in Paris. 

At that time the only extract of any kind in this country 
for flavoring purposes was a cheap extract of lemon. A few 
French chefs used the vanilla bean itself. 

This was the clumsy, unsanitary and inconvenient way 
these chefs got their vanilla flavoring; they would purchase 
one or two vanilla beans, cut them up and put them in a linen 
bag, ready to use like a tea ball, to flavor whatever was 
required. 

The results from this tedious, inexact method of extract- 
ing the flavor were of course very unsatisfactory. When the 

43 



bag was first used it would give the delicious flavor of pure 
vanilla, but afterwards, when it became diluted, the taste was 
weak and unpalatable. It was never uniform in strength or 
flavor. It was always expensive because the full rich flavor 
could never be thoroughly extracted. 

Mr. Burnett listened to the lady's description of the fla- 
voring she wanted. He bought a pound of the very best 
vanilla beans he could procure and extracted the rare, deli- 
cate flavor of which she spoke, and after long, careful experi- 
ments, when he was satisfied with its quality he made the 
first Vanilla Extract that was ever sold in this country. 

A factory was rented at 27 Central Street, Boston, but as 
the business expanded larger quarters were necessary. In 
1894, J*JSt before Joseph Burnett died, a new factory was 
opened at 36 India Street. 

About this time the increasing interest in fancy cooking 
warranted the marketing of a pure color for coloring can- 
dies, frostings, etc. After extended experimenting in the labor- 
atory and kitchen, Burnett's Color Pastes were out on the 
market. 

His sons, Harry and Robert, continued the manufactur- 
ing policy of their father, which was to make the very finest 
extracts that could be made and advertise the fact to the con- 
sumer. The wisdom of this policy can be discerned in the 
steadv growth of the sales, which in 1920 necessitated the 
building of a fine new factory at 437 D Street, Boston, 
equipped with all the latest machinery for manufacturing, 
packaging and handling the various products. 

In 1919, after a careful market analysis, it was decided 
that fine spices could be handled to advantage, and so Burnett's 
Spices, the choicest grown in the tropics, were added to the 
extract line. 

Today Joseph Burnett Company, which is still owned by 
the family of the founder, sells its products over the entire 
world. 



44 




Sea-Food for Inlanders 

"B^ M Pure Food Products Were Once 
Chiefly Famed for the Excellenceoj Sweet 
Corn and Succotash, Today the Demand 
for "B &^ M Sea-Foods from Coast to 
Coast Is Greater Than Can "Be Supplied 

About 75 years ago — up in the State of Maine — a group 
of business men of wide vision and foresight, realizing the 
future possibilities in the development of the State's natural 
resources and advantages, established what is now known all 
over the country and in many foreign markets as the Burnham 
& Morrill Company, packers of B & M Pure Food Products. 
The industry was based upon the packing of a product 
for which the soil and climate of Maine are especially adapted 
— sweet corn ; and although there are now many competitors 
in the State, the Burnham & Morrill Company still main- 
tains its lead with a larger output and more canneries for this 
one product, in spite of the fact that this is only one branch 
of a business which is now much more extensive and includes 
many products. Such a development attests to the sound prin- 
ciples which have governed the management of the concern 
for three-quarters of a century. 

45 



The Civil War afforded the new company an opportunity 
for rapid expansion and the next decade saw a constant striv- 
ing for improvement in methods and an extension to include^ 
other products. Sweet corn, upon which the business was 
founded, was first packed in Portland. Gradually, additional 
canneries were opened up through the famous "Maine Corn 
Belt," until there are now 17 plants used for the packing of 
this one product alone. 

The excellence of Burnham & Morrill Company products 
was from the start recognized in a national and even a world 
market. The American Institute in New York in 1874 
awarded the company its highest medal for the excellence of 
its Sweet Corn and Succotash; this was followed by an award 
at the United States Centennial Fair in Philadelphia in 1876, 
and two years later the company received an international 
honor — a gold medal awarded in Paris at the "Exposition 
Universelle Internationale." These, and numerous other 
awards to come later, are now the more significant as they 
were given at a time when such honors were a true attest to 
superiority. 

Bv 1 87 1 Succotash and various other vegetables had been 
added to the list and the company was beginning experiments 
in the packing of shell fish, which resulted in the development 
of the well-known "Scarboro Beach" brand Clam Products 
and "Red Jacket" brand Deep Sea Lobster. 

Immediate expansion followed — several factories were 
established along the Maine Coast, and more in Canada, where 
today the entire output of B & M Lobster is packed at a score 
of shops, while several new Maine Coast factories are devoted 
exclusively to the packing of Clam Products, prepared from 
those tender white shell clams which can be gathered only 
from the sandy inlets of the Maine Coast. 

Today the demand for these B & M Sea Foods can in 
any year be but partially supplied. Orders are received far 
in excess of the available supply and have, each season, to be 
allotted upon a percentage basis. 

The business had now been incorporated under the name 
it still bears and its activities were growing. Further experi- 

46 



^^H^^ 0"^^ 


'"d 




^^^■^^ 


i 


r^-<{->^^^^H 




1 





Mr. G. B. Morrill 
Burnham &■ Morrill Co. 



mentation was being conducted, 
this time on the problem of 
canning a fish product which 
would make fresh fish available 
for the housewife regardless of 
where she lived or what the 
climate might be. Finally, there 
was developed what is today 
known universally as "B & M 
Fish Flakes," which solved this 
problem. It consists simply of 
pure, white meat of choicest 
Codfish and Haddock, thor- 
oughly cooked and boned, 
slightly seasoned, and packed 
in sanitary, parchment-lined 

tins ready for instant use — and just as fresh as though only a 
few hours out of the clear, cold depths of the North Atlantic, 
as indeed it was when canned. 

As soon as the suitability of the product for wide distri- 
bution was realized aggressive advertising was planned. Even 
by 1900 advertising had been done upon a limited scale in 
those markets enjoying the greatest distribution of B & M 
Products. Advertising had helped materially in establishing 
the position of Paris Sugar Corn. The great period of adver- 
tising expansion into national fields, however, came after 1903. 
Conservative at first and only after careful investigation, 
national advertising of B & M Fish Flakes was extended. 

In 191 2 it was found necessary to erect a modern, sanitary 
plant on the outskirts of Portland for a Headquarters Factory. 
This plant has its own wharfage facilities and railroad sidings. 
It is located on the very ocean's edge, and standing out promi- 
nently by itself in a beautiful setting of velvety green lawns and 
sparkling blue water, is one of the industrial show places of the 
State, where many visitors each year admire the scrupulous 
cleanliness of kitchens and packing rooms, and where freshly 
uniformed employees work under ideal conditions affording 
an abundance of sunlight and fresh air. 

47 




27,000,000 Boxes 

An Expenditure of $6 ,000 ,000 in 
Advertising Over a Period of Eighteen 
Years Has Expanded the Market for 
California Citrus Fruits Four Times 
as Fast as Population Has Increased 

America's appetite for citrus fruit required nearly 120,000 
carloads to satisfy it last year. Each of the 120 million per- 
sons comprising the American market now consumes 58 
oranges, 16 lemons and 5 grapefruit a year. 

Of the present supply, California furnishes about two- 
thirds of the oranges, four-fifths of the lemons and but a 
small percentage of the grapefruit. These are large figures 
for a product classed as a rare luxury within the recent mem- 
ory of people of this generation. 

Co-operative marketing and advertising are chiefly respon- 
sible for the remarkable growth in the citrus industry. 

Although oranges were hrst planted by the Mission Fathers 
in the patios and gardens of the California missions at about 

48 



the time the United States itself was born, the industry had 
to await the development of railroad transportation to East- 
ern markets before it could assume any commercial signifi- 
cance. The railroad came to Southern California in 1877, 
and in that year the first carload shipment of oranges was 
made across the continent. Four years prior to that, in 1873, 
a California pioneer, Mrs. Eliza Tibbets, planted in River- 
side two trees of a new seedless variety sent to her by a relative 
connected with the United States Department of Agricul- 
ture at Washington. 

This new variety was called the "Washington Navel" 
orange, and these two trees were destined to be the ancestors 
of the mighty industry which today is one of California's 
largest and most famous. 

By 1885 commercial production of oranges in California 
had increased to 1,000 carloads annually, and the infant indus- 
try became large enough to have a marketing problem. With 
only 1,000 cars to market, a mass meeting of the growers, 
held in Los Angeles in 1885, recognized, by formal resolu- 
tion, the fact that unless some united action were taken for 
improved methods in the sale of their fruit, the industry 
would soon perish. That meeting marked the start of co- 
operative effort, although it was not until ten years later, in 
1895, ^hat co-operative marketing was established as a perma- 
nent basis of operation. 

The original co-operative organization included growers 
producing only 32 per cent of the California citrus crop. The 
growers' organization grew slowly but steadily until in 190c; 
It included 48 per cent of the total production. Acreage and 
production, meanwhile, had been greatly extended, but under 
the stabilizing influence of orderly marketing and widened 
distribution the industry generally had prospered, and fears 
of overproduction were left behind for a time. 

It soon became apparent, however, that the basic consumer 
demand had to be increased, and in this situation the growers 
turned to advertising. The first test campaign on California 
oranges was made in 1907, with an appropriation of $6,000. 
This represented the first efifort made by growers themselves 

49 



to enlarge the consumer demand for their products, and many 
there were who doubted its wisdom. 

But it worked, and the California Fruit Growers Exchange 
has advertised continuously ever since. 

The "Sunkist Campaign," as it is familiarly known, is 
chiefly devoted to advertising a commodity rather than a 
brand. During the past twenty years citrus production in 
California has increased from eleven million to twenty-seven 
million boxes. Production has increased 135 per cent, while 
population has increased 36 per cent. The California crop 
has increased nearly four times as rapidly as the population, 
and there have been substantial additions to the total supply 
from other sources as well. 

During the eighteen years of Sunkist advertising, a total 
investment of approximately six million dollars has been 
made. Gross sales during the same period have aggregated 
eight hundred millions. The advertising expenditure, there- 
fore, represents an investment averaging Y^ of i per cent of 
the gross sales. During the past five years, approximately i 
per cent of the gross sales has been invested in advertising, 
and the amount has never exceeded i>^ per cent. 

The California Fruit Growers Exchange is a co-operative, 
non-profit organization of 11,000 growers. It has no capital 
and accumulates no dividends. But in the ownership of the 
name "Sunkist," which has been established with the trade 
and consuming public for many years, the growers collec- 
tively possess a tangible asset of great value and one which 
becomes the immediate heritage of each new grower who 
joins the Exchange. 



50 




A History in a Nutshell 

The California Walnut Growers' Associa- 
tion Has Quadrupled the Consumption of 
Walnuts and with a 4}^% Overhead 
and Selling' Cost Vastly hicreased the 
"Profits of Its M emb er- Grow ers 

Prior to the formation of the California Walnut Growers 
Association, in 1912, there were a few local associations, made 
up of individual growers, doing business in the different wal- 
nut districts. Most growers, however, sold independently of 
even the locals. There was practically no standardization. 
Independent shippers and local associations had many 
brands, all competing with one another. Speculation was rife. 
In fact, the grower was rarely able to cash in on the few high 
markets that would occur, whereas he was almost sure to lose 
on the poor markets, which were the rule rather than the 
exception. 

By 191 2 it was said that a point of overproduction had been 
reached in the growing of walnuts. In some districts acreage 
was being rapidly pulled out and planted to more profitable 

51 



fruits. There was a general feeling of pessimism among 
walnut growers in general. At that time most of the local 
associations joined together and formed the California Wal- 
nut Growers Association. The locals made an earnest effort 
to secure a larger number of members. They succeeded in 
getting a great majority of the walnut growers into the organ- 
ization. The function of the local associations is to receive 
walnuts from the local members and prepare them for ship- 
ment. The business of the central association is to take the 
w^alnuts when ready for shipment from the locals, distribute 
and sell them to the best advantage throughout the country, 
returning all moneys derived from sales to the local associa- 
tions, less actual sales and advertising expenses. The central 
association is controlled by a board, w^hich is made up of one 
representative from each local association. 

Immediately after the California Walnut Growers Asso- 
ciation was organized steps were taken to improve the stan- 
dard requirements of the association's pack. Excessively 
high standards for such a pack were set up and a rigid inspec- 
tion system was installed in the locals by the central to see 
that the quality of walnuts was maintained. The many dif- 
ferent brand names were abandoned and "DIAMOND'' 
Brand was universally adopted. Sales to speculators and com- 
mercial packers were discontinued. Brokerage connections 
were made direct in the important markets throughout the 
United States. At first advertising was not resorted to, but 
almost immediately the industry began to prosper. Instead 
of removing groves, additional acreage was set out. 

Within a few years it became evident additional sales pres- 
sure would be necessary in order to sell quickly the increasing 
tonnage. The pressure resorted to was advertising. From a 
small appropriation of $1,200 the amount spent for advertis- 
ing has now grown until in a normal year the advertising 
expenditure runs around from $150,000 to $200,000. 

The central association was not satisfied with successfully 
selling each year's walnut crop. It takes decided interest in 
the production of better-grade walnuts and through guidance 
and working closely with the local associations they have 

52 



been able to bring about greatly improved methods of sorting, 
cleaning, bleaching and preparing for market in general, but 
even that was not considered enough. Close connections were 
made with the University of California, and through experi- 
ments conducted with their help vast improvements have been 
made on the cultural side of walnut growing. 

"The proof of the pudding is the eating thereof," and the 
proof of a successful cooperative walnut association is the 
following: 

The first year the association did business they handled a 
little over 5,000 tons. Today, in a normal growing season 
they will handle more than 20,000 tons. Besides growing in 
the number of tons handled the association has increased the 
percentage of growers who market their crops through its 
offices from 51 to 84. Speculation has been eliminated. 
The carryover of one season's crop into a succeeding year 
has been practically eliminated. The price secured for mem- 
bers' cull ivalnuts was ihis year greater than they were able 
to secure for their best grade of walnuts before the association 
was formed. The cost of doing business, including advertis- 
ing, executives' salaries, warehousing, service to growers and 
all other expenses is 4]/^ cents on the dollar. Growers also 
have the privilege of withdrawing, without any penalty, 30 
days prior to the annual meeting of the association each 
season. 

The three essentials of successful selling are the prime rea- 
sons for the association's great success. First, a quality pack 
of "DIAMOND" Walnuts. Second, an extremely efficient 
sales policy and management. And, third, the wise and 
judicious use of advertising. 



53 




39,236,231 
Advertisements 

Persistent Advertisw^ of the ''Calumet 
Kid" in All Kinds of Media Ove?' Thirty-five 
Years Has Made Calumet Baking Powder 
One of the Great Nationally Known Brands 

By WILLIAM SMEDLEY 

WllEX W. M. Wright founded the Calumet Baking Powder 
Company — thirty-five years ago — he had in mind certain 
ideas. The first was to produce a quality baking powder; 
second, to sell it only at a fair profit, and third, a definite 
dealer policy involving sales of Calumet only through the 
retailer and wholesaler — no carrying of water on both shoul- 
ders — no private labels — no sales to mail order houses^no 
sales to peddlers — no "ifs" or "buts," only a plain, straight- 
forward, honest policy. 

And here's the big thing — every policy has been carried out 
literally, and no man can work for Calumet who violates, 
directly or indirectly, these policies. 

54 



Mr. Wright has lived to see the fulfillment of his ideals, to 
see Calumet grow from an idea to a nationally known prod- 
uct, and it is a great satisfaction to the whole organization to 
know that today the sale of Calumet Baking Powder is two 
and a half times larger than that of any other baking powder. 

Mr. Wright is now enjoying the fruit of his labors and has 
placed the mantle of authority on the shoulders of his son, 
Mr. Warren Wright, who, as president of the company, is ful- 
filling every pledge made for Calumet. 

Mr. Warren Wright is known as one of the best sales execu- 
tives in Chicago, for he believes in teamwork as a producer 
of business, and the Calumet organization is just one big fam- 
ily, working together to make the business GO — GROW — 
GLOW. 

The real idea behind a can of Calumet is Service — not 
imaginary, but real service — service to the distributor and 
service to the consumer, plus satisfaction to the user and profit 
to the seller. 

The first factory of the Calumet Company, in 1889, con- 
sisted of 400 square feet of floor space. Today there is a big 
plant on the West Side, a plant at East St. Louis, 111.; the 
material plant at Joliet, 111., covering six acres, with forty- 
three separate buildings and a floor space of more than a mil- 
lion square feet, and the home plant at Chicago, having a 
floor space of 160,000 square feet. So much for size. 

Mr. K. K. Bell, the vice-president and general manager, 
is a live wire. He is the head of the Local Loyalty League, 
very largely supported by the Calumet Company. Its object 
is to build local communities, town spirit and the "Trade at 
Home" idea to the inhabitants. If he has any one particular 
hobby besides making Calumet the world's greatest baking 
powder, it is his love for children, which is one reason why 
so much of Calumet's advertising appropriation is spent for 
"Dolly Cook Books," "Children's Party Books," airships, 
school tablets, puzzles, savings banks, etc. He is far-sighted 
enough to realize that children are the coming housekeepers 
and that the child's good-will of today will be a big trade 
factor in the future. 

55 



Calumet has a well-et]uipped Home Economics Depart- 
ment, under the direct control of Helen Harrington Down- 
ing. Here is established a model home kitchen, here the vis- 
itors are shown how to economize energy and time. It has 
proven to be an inspiration to many thousands who visit it 
yearly. It is open to the public at all times — no frills or red 
tape to get in. Any grocer can arrange for his customers to 
visit it, and many do so. Here women's clubs, church societies 
and cooking classes from high schools and universities come 
to icarn something different about domestic economy. 

In May, 1924, Calumet started to broadcast over a new 
broadcasting station, owned jointly by Calumet and the Rain- 
bow Gardens — WQJ, Chicago. This station broadcasts fine 
concerts, recipes, household hints, current events and espe- 
cially emphasizes the "Buy at Home" and "Patronize Your 
Local Dealer" policy. 

Calumet advertising is known all over the land. It is lib- 
eral. It is widespread. It is so distributed as to help the 
local dealer make sales. Calumet uses more newspaper space 
than any other food manufacturer in the world. This space 
is used intelligently — daily papers, farm papers, posters, store 
signs, bulletin boards, etc., for a large portion of the Calumet 
publicity. Every community gets its share, which means that 
every dealer "gets his." The advertising is consistent; it never 
lets up. People are familiar with the "Calumet Kid," the 
trade mark of the company. The circulation of the various 
mediums carrying the message of Calumet reaches a total of 
39,236,231 copies. 

The Calumet organization is a human proposition. From 
president to oflice boy, the idea prevails that human service 
is the highest form of self-interest and that the man behind 
the counter is the company's big responsibility — to help him 
meet competition, to help him grow, to help him keep trade 
at home and to create a lasting friendship that will make and 
hold good-uill. 



56 



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The Story of Campbell's 

How an Idea of Condensed Soup and a 
Product of Superior Quality Have Used 
432,000,000 Pages of Advertising to Build O^te 
of the Great Successes of American Business 

We blend the best with careful pains 

In skillful combination, 
And every single can contains 

Our business reputation. 

So runs one of the familiar and happy little jingles that 
appear in the Campbell's Soups advertisements. 

It states in its own breezy way the ideals in the mind of 
John T. Dorrance on his way home, some twenty-nine years 
ago, from the University of Gottingen, where he had obtained 
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, having specialized in 
chemistry, mathematics and physics. He was previously grad- 

57 



uated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology — 
Chemical Course. 

In Europe Dr. Dorrance had been powerfully impressed 
with the popularity and the splendid food and health value 
of soup. In the big cities, in the hamlets and the rural dis- 
tricts, wherever he went, he observed that soup was really a 
staple article of the people's food. Thus the young chemist 
returned to America with the idea uppermost in his mind that 
in some way the United States could and should be made to 
appreciate the value of good soup. In Europe the soup pot is 
a family institution, but in America, where gas and electricity 
may be turned off and on in a moment, it is extravagant to keep 
the soup pot simmering, and long cooking is a fundamental 
for good soup. 

He ate, drank and slept with this idea, but like many a 
Ph. D. just out of college Dr. Dorrance was blessed with far 
more education than money. In fact, money was just about 
the scarcest article of his equipment. His first need, therefore, 
was a job where he could have opportunity to develop his 
dream of making the country truly a nation of soup eaters. 
His uncle's factory was destined to give him this chance, for 
not long after his return from Europe he received a telegram 
from his uncle, a manufacturer of food products in Camden, 
to visit him at his factory, with the result that he entered the 
employ of Joseph Campbell Company as chemist. He was 
the first person possessing a technical training to join the 
organization. 

\\'hen the young chemist proposed the installation of a 
laboratory and the setting up of the apparatus he had brought 
with him from Europe, it was considered too ambitious an 
undertaking. Accordingly, he was assigned to a remote corner 
of the building and allowed to do experimental work with his 
equipment, for which, as he today says, with a laugh, he has 
never been paid. 

From this remote corner of a factory given over to the 
manufacture of more than two hundred different articles of 
food came an idea that was destined to eventually subordinate 
everything to the manufacture of soup — the method of con- 

58 




Dr. Joliii T. Dorrancc 
Founder of CaiiipbcU's SouJ^ 



densing soup by eliminating 
water to the extent of one-half 
of the volume. This made pos- 
sible the immense development 
of Campbell's Soups, as it ef- 
fected most important savings on 
the can, label and case, on 
storage space and on freight 
charges. Tinned soups, non- 
condensed, had been on the mar- 
ket for some years, but had not 
been able to overcome the prob- 
lem of excessive cost due to the 
bulky package. 

As a student of economics, 
Dr. Dorrance recognized from 

the very beginning the necessity of quantity production as the 
one sure means of reducing overhead charges, and obtaining 
the benefit of quantity price as well as quality selection in the 
purchasing of ingredients. 

The vital importance of making soup of the highest quality 
was recognized from the outset. The United States needed 
to be taught to eat soup. Mediocre soup would have checked 
this growing habit, but Campbell's Soups have made converts 
among our people at an amazing rate, and only a true gospel 
can carry such conviction, however devoted the missionary. 
Despite Dr. Dorrance's thorough-going education and his ob- 
servations in Europe, he did not suffer from any false idea 
that he "knew it all." Consequently, in 1903, he returned to 
Europe to make a further study of soups. He acquired first- 
hand experience in the blending of soups by actually work- 
ing beside the best-known chefs in the kitchens of the great 
hotels and restaurants and the fashionable clubs in Paris, 
London, Berlin, Vienna and later on in New York. Those 
years marked the heyday of the epicure. Dining as a fine art 
was in its highest estate. It was an age of greater leisure when 
eating was a ceremony and food attained a special luxury. Dr. 
Dorrance's training in this period was invaluable to him in 

59 



the pursuit of his aim to make soups of splendid quality. 

An advertising campaign, started more than twenty-five 
years ago, with the slight resources the Company then had, 
aimed at the education of the public in the use of soups. The 
space had to be small, the total bill for the first year a mere 
trifle compared with the present great annual advertising 
appropriation which has popularized the well known Red- 
and-W'hite label until it has become as universally a part of 
a grocer's stock as the counter is a part of his equipment. The 
rollicking little Campbell Kids are as well known to the Amer- 
ican people and as dear to the hearts of American children as 
Alice in Wonderland and Little Red Riding-Hood. Every 
year has seen a steady growth in the advertising and sales have 
mounted with amazing rapidity. 

Today the great Campbell's kitchens have a capacity of 
millions of cans a day. Today CampbelTs are the leading 
magazine advertisers, with a grand total of 432,000,000 adver- 
tising messages printed every year. A full page every issue 
is the undeviating Campbell's rule. In almost every magazine 
on the Campbell's list attractive color is used to make the sales 
message even more appealing and the package even more 
familiar. 

The success of this enterprise can be attributed to: first. 
Dr. Dorrance's conception of the idea of Condensed Soup; 
second, the perfection of the recipe, the quantity and quality 
of the ingredients; third, the technic in cooking and blend- 
ing; and fourth, scrupulous insistence on cleanliness and sani- 
tary surroundings. 

In view of the Company's history, it is not surprising to 
learn that Dr. Dorrance has, as he says, "only three hobbies — 
mv wife, mv children and soup-making." 



60 




It Sparkled to Success 

Some Grocery Specialties Have "Been 
Patiently, Even Laboriously, Built to Suc- 
cess Over a Period of Years: but Here Is 
One That Leapt to Triumph Over Nif{ht 

"Business is business", says the modern go-getter as he hur- 
ries from lunch in a final sort of a way. 

Yes, business IS an engrossing matter but so many of us let 
the money-making, bustling side of just business absorb us 
that the romance of an industry, a profession, a livelihood, is 
almost lost sight of — ^forgotten. 

People who persist in "talking shop" become bores soon 
enough. There is decided interest however attached to "shop" 
when the talk is as colorful and romantic in the recounting 
as the one we tell here. 

The customer who steps up to his Grocer and asks for a 
carton of "Canada Dry" little knows the complex nature of 
the beverage he is ordering. Nor does he think of the years 

61 



and years of tireless effort, the discouragement, the vast ex- 
pense which the perfection of his favorite Ginger Ale entailed. 

Thirty-four years ago an enterprising Canadian sensed the 
fact that there was a call for a man's drink in a Ginger Ale — 
one which was well tempered, sparkling and a good mixer 
with other beverages. The demand really originated in the 
English Clubs of London, in the days when Victoria was 
Queen of England. These English epicures gave Mr. J. J. 
McLaughlin his idea. 

A chemist and specialist in the manufacture of soft drinks, 
he had the facilities to start his experiments. His idea de- 
veloped into an ambition ... an obsession ... a hobby 
... a life work. 

No doubt many of his friends laughed behind his back 
when he persisted in closeting himself in his laboratory day 
in and day out — discarding this brand of Ginger, testing the 
pungency of another and then blending the chosen root with 
oils, essences, orange and lemon peels, herbs, barks and spices 
which he had searched the worlds' markets to experiment 
with. 

Little knowledge was available to him from books due to 
the secrecy surrounding the compounding of a beverage which 
boasted of the slightest popularity. 

Many a man would have given up. But not J. J. McLaugh- 
lin. Discouragement only strengthened his resolve. Finally, 
after weeks and months of exhaustive study and experiments, 
a final test satisfied him. On that day "Canada Dry" was 
created, was named, was offered to the public in the McLaugh- 
lin Soda Fountain. Mr. McLaughlin may then have realized 
he was entitled to a nitche in the Hall of Success. 

The ingredients, coming from the seven seas were carefully 
extracted in a scientifically equipped laboratory — every proc- 
ess in its manufacture centered about sanitation, quality, uni- 
formity and absolute perfection. A few dozen bottles a day 
became inadequate. The production was soon doubled, 
tripled and multiplied by df)zens and dozens. 

From Halifax to Toronto— from Toronto to Edmonton and 
Vancouver, "Canada Dry" was becoming known. By leaps 

62 



and bounds its popularity grew; its delicious, unforgettable 
flavor became known. In the Houses of Parliament at Ottawa 
and in the residence of the Governor General, "Canada Dry" 
was the order of the day. 

The Royal Canadian Yacht Club accorded it a real favorite. 
Its patrons liked it as a Ginger Ale as well as a mixer with 
other beverages. 

Americans visiting across the border returned with tales 
of "a real Ginger Ale" and told of drinking it with such relish 
that their friends were anxious to taste it, too, and inquired if 
it could not be purchased in this country. 

The reply was always "No" until in 1921 the Canadian 
owners, whose farmula was guarded as carefully as the crown 
jewels, were persuaded to open a subsidiary office in New 
York. 

That first week, without a single line of advertising, a car- 
load was sold. Almost over night "Canada Dry" became the 
sensation of the most exclusive clubs, hotels, restaurants and 
cafes in New York. 

What a hit it made. In that same year, a separate plant 
was found essential to care for the demand in the U. S. A. 

Two years later when operations at the new plant had pro- 
duced a surplus supply, the New York Newspapers carried 
the first advertising of "The Champagne of Ginger Ales". 

The response was immediate, amazing, a tribute to the 
labors and perserverance of Mr. McLaughlin. Ninety days 
thereafter, orders reached New York from every section of 
the country. Grocer, druggist, confectioner and delicatessen 
vied with each other in getting an order of this famous old 
Ginger Ale for their customers. The owner of one of the 
Metropolitan hotels, a man in the public eye, wrote a personal 
letter to the firm requesting that "two more cases" be sent to 
his summer home in Maine. 

Two globe trotters, ofif to Paris, embarked with three cases, 
knowing that even abroad such a Ginger Ale could not be 
purchased. 

Today railroads, steamship lines on lake, river and ocean, 
ofifer " Canada Dry" on their menus. Its popularity has 

6J 



spread from the large cities to small villages, to the road 
stands along country byways where the thirsty autoist pauses 
tor a glass of cooling refreshment. 

The American Plant — a modern, sanitary, sunlit plant — 
located at Hudson Upper, New York, is the finest of its kind 
in the world. Standard equipment and methods, hourly 
chemical and bacteriological tests, supervision and inspection, 
and constant research — everything humanly possible is done 
to maintain the quality of this famous Ginger Ale. The New 
York State Department of Health, one of the most efficient 
health organizations in the country, gave the "Canada Dry" 
Plant a one hundred per cent Bill of Health. 

Happy, contented co-workers are truly imbued with the 
"Canada Dry" spirit, which pervades the entire organization 
— a spirit that "gets'' everyone from the President down, to 
work and win. 

The advertising and selling plans are not the result of hur- 
ried conferences behind closed doors. Plans are developed 
slowly, but surely, and run the gamut of the entire organiza- 
tion for ideas and suggestions before final perfection. Thoro 
study and analysis, the consideration of the smallest detail, 
and hard common sense are fundamental to the development 
of all plans, which are tested out in representative markets 
before final use. 

The age of miracles has passed, and to reach the leading 
position in the Ginger Ale World that "Canada Dry" occu- 
pies today, there must be some very substantial reasons which 
briefly can be outlined as follows: 

A. An unbeatable, inimitable and incomparable product. 

B. A directing, executive organization, whose efficiency 
has justified the position they have placed "Canada 
Dry" in the Soft Drink World in so short a period of 
time. 

C. A Sales Force that is on its toes and knows its business 
from every angle. 

D. A sincere desire to assist, in every way, our Jobbers 
and Retailers to solve their many problems. 



64 




"From Contented Cows" 

The Story of One of the Great Adver- 
tising Slogans and of the Development 
of a Great American Business 

A GOOD many years ago the man who founded Carnation Milk 
Products Company, and its president today, was driving a 
team of mules — mules which, by the way, he had bought with 
his own hard-saved youthful earnings — in a construction gang 
on the Santa Fe Railroad. 

It was a rough, pioneer life and the food was rough, pio- 
neer food. The need for milk that w^ould keep was daily 
before the mind of the Scotch mule-driver, whose name was 
E. A. Stuart. He saw a market for canned milk there in the 
great West, and it occurred to him that he might be the man 
to supply that market. 

His idea was not to bear fruit at that early date, but it per- 
sisted. When, a few years later, Mr. Stuart became the pro- 
prietor of a grocery in an adobe storeroom in El Paso, he was 
still thinking about canned milk. Likewise, as a wholesale 
grocer in Los Angeles, he held tenaciously to that dream. 

65 



Twenty-three years as a retail and wholesale groceryman 
may have postponed the founding of the Carnation Milk 
Products Company, but it gave the founder an invaluable 
fund of practical knowledge of the channels through which 
America's food products move. So, when Mr. Stuart, in 
1899, took over a small, bankrupt condcnsary in Kent, Wash., 
he was equipped to sell as well as to produce. 

The selling was desperately hard at first. Evaporated milk, 
preserved by sterlization, without the use of sugar, was practi- 
cally unknown, the chief supplv of canned milk in those days 
being of the sweetened kind. Thus, the natural difficulties 
which faced the struggling new' company were made more 
formidable by public ignorance of and indifference to the 
product which the company offered. 

Unlabelled, in hand-made cans, the first milk from the 
condensary at Kent was sold by Mr. Stuart himself by sheer 
force of will-power. Orders for as few as half a dozen cans 
were gratefully accepted, and even these modest sales were 
only made possible by a guarantee to take back every can of 
milk uliich ditl not sell. . . . 

Such were the beginnings of Carnation Milk. Then the 
nameless product was given a name, w'hich is known today 
wherever the English language is spoken. Markets began to 
expand, and before long it became one of the chief concerns of 
Mr. Stuart and the associates whom he gathered around him 
to develop new sources of supply for milk of a quality to 
satisfy Carnation standards. 

One after another, new condensarics were opened in the 
richest dairving sections of the United States and Canada, 
until today there are thirty-eight model plants, each notable 
for cleanly, efficient and sanitary production. The now^ fa- 
mous Carnation Milk Farms were established at Carnation, 
Wash., near Seattle, and at Oconomowoc, Wis., and devoted 
to the scientific breeding of Holstein cattle, in order to pro- 
vide sires and dams of high milk-prf)ducing strain to raise 
the standards of the herds whicli supply milk to the Carna- 
tion condensaries. 

Advertising was early recognized by Mr. Stuart as a pow- 

66 




Mr. E. A. Stiiarf, President 
Carnation Milk Prodticts Company 



erful means for promoting and 
stabilizing the development of 
his business. As the Carnation 
market became national in 
scope, advertising on a national 
scale was directed to the solu- 
tion of the new selling problems 
which arose. Farther back than 
most of us can remember, the 
phrase "From Contented Cows" 
had become a household word 
in America. Since then, the 
force of advertising has been 
steadily and consistently ap- 
plied to raise the consumption 
of Carnation Milk to new and 
higher levels from year to year. 

Just as constant study has been directed toward the im- 
provement of Carnation Milk and the methods by which it is 
produced and distributed, likewise the interpretation of the 
product through advertising has undergone changes which 
reflect careful analysis of the attitude of the consuming pub- 
lic. A recent physical improvement in Carnation advertis- 
ing has been the portrayal of the Carnation can set inside a 
milk bottle. This device has proved valuable as a visual inti- 
mation that Carnation is in every sense and for every pur- 
pose real milk and not a substitute. Through this and other 
means, Carnation advertising is gaining new users for "milk 
in a modern package," a product which seems destined to 
occupy a position of constantly growing importance in world 
food economy. 



67 




A Gentleman Rides 
on Horseback 

Joel Cheek Once "Rode Through the 
Cumberland Valley with a Spare Shirt 
in One Side of His Saddlebag and 
Sales Samples in the Other — and 
Founded a Great National Business 

Back in the '70s, a young man rode through the Cumberhmd 
Valley, in Kentucky and Tennessee, with a spare shirt in one 
side of his saddlebag and samples on the other. 

Today, a genial, white-haired gentleman of 72, he is active 
head of a great national business, with plants scattered from 
coast to coast. 

The storv of Joel Cheek is one of the real romances of the 
business world. 

And it is far more. It is a romance of the old South. For 
with all his genius, Joel Cheek could not have succeeded so 

68 



greatly had he not been brought up in a land where good 
things to eat were ahnost a religion. 

Up the Cumberland River, years ago, Joel Cheek travelled 
on the old side-wheeled steamers. On horseback he rode 
from village to village, selling coffee for a wholesale house 
in Nashville. 

And all the time he was thinking of the flavors that his 
fellow^ Southerners knew and enjoyed — of the wonderful food 
prepared by their mammy cooks. Was it not possible, by skill- 
ful blending, to produce a coffee flavor which could match 
these achievements? 

Here was the task to which he set himself. For years he 
studied and worked. Between trips he carried home samples 
of various coffees, blending and roasting them; testing, reject- 
ing; toiling late into the night; always searching for the ideal 
combination; persevering in spite of countless obstacles. 

Finally he perfected it — a coffee blend so rich and mel- 
low that it delighted even the most critical people in that 
land of good living. 

Among the many who soon became enthusiastic over Mr. 
Cheek's coffee was Mr. Black, manager of the Maxwell 
House, in Nashville. After a careful trial, he began serving 
it to his guests. From that time on, no other coffee was ever 
used by this fine old hotel, and Mr. Cheek named his blend, 
fittingly, "Maxwell House Coffee." 

Throughout the South the Maxwell House itself became 
celebrated for its delicious food — and especially for its coffee. 
Wherever its guests went, they carried with them to their 
homes the fame of Joel Cheek's blend. And so, when, in 
association with Mr. J. W. Neal, Mr. Cheek built a large 
roasting plant in Nashville and began to market his coffee, 
the product was quick to meet success in the Nashville 
territory. 

As the demand for Maxwell House spread farther west a 
new plant had to be opened in Houston to supply fresh coffee 
in the markets of the Southwest. But the Southeast, too, was 
buying Mr. Cheek's coffee in increasing quantities. And so, 
in 1 910, he erected another plant — at Jacksonville, Fla. Six 

69 




year later, to serve a still newer 
territory, a fourth plant was 
built in Richmond, Va. Thus 
tlie popularity of Maxwell 
House Cofifee was established 
throughout the entire South. 

But Mr. Cheek, believing 
firmly in the quality of his 
blend, was confident that Max- 
well House Coffee could become 
a nation-wide drink. In 1921, 
backing it with a powerful ad- 
vertising campaign, he intro- 
duced Maxwell House into 
New York, building a roasting 
plant in Brooklyn. Although 
the product had to meet tre- 
mendous competition it became, within twenty-eight months, 
the best selling high-grade coffee in the New York market. 

In 1924 a Cheek-Neal factory was built in Los Angeles, 
the sixth link in a nation-wide chain of giant cofifee roasting 
plants. \Vith the opening of this plant, in January, 1925, 
Maxwell House Coffee became a truly national institution. 
Possessed of an exceptional flavor and backed by the biggest 
advertising campaign ever put behind a cofTee, it has estab- 
lished itself from coast to coast. 

Long ago, Joel Cheek went into business to supply his cof- 
fee blend to the people of America. Today, his sons and his 
associates, J. W. and J. R. Neal, working with him, he still 
directs personally the great organization that blends and 
roasts Maxwell House — America's largest selling high-grade 
cofifee. 



Mr. Joel O. Check 

rounder and Presidoit 

ClieeL'-Xeal Coffee Company 



70 




A Drink of the Eskimo 

Kid 

Forty Years of Priceless Experience 
Have Made Clicquot Club Ginger Ale 
Popular from Coast to Coast. Here 
Is Told the Tale of the Many Trails 
This Pioneer Beverage Has Blazed 

With so much stress being laid these days on health foods 
and calories and vitamins, the breakfast food for this and the 
fruit for that, who is going to come out loud and clear for the 
values in good, pure ginger ale? Yet all of us drink ginger 
ale. Most of us keep it in the house constantly, or can easily 
run around the corner to buy a couple of bottles for the 
impromptu card party. Billions of dollars are spent every 
year for soft drinks by us weary Americans. Most of this 
money is spent for ginger ale. More than 12,000 bottlers are 
making ginger ale for the American public. That means four 
and a generous fraction for every city and town in the country 
of 2,500 population. 

71 



Yet, with all this enormous consumption, what does the 
public know about the drinks it spends its pennies for? Who 
makes them? What are they made of? How are they made? 

Naturally, among 12,000 brands of ginger ale there are 
wide variations in quality and purity. Anyone can buy ginger 
and sugar and fruit juices, blend them with carbonated water 
and call the result "ginger ale/' Fortunately, the forty years' 
history of one concern making ginger ale is the record of devo- 
tion to the aim of improving bottling practices and producing 
purer, more uniform beverages at a fairer cost. The Clicquot 
Club Company of Millis, Massachusetts, has held to this pur- 
pose consistently throughout its business history, believing 
that reliable products were a public obligation incurred by 
every bottler. Perhaps Clicquot Club's position as the world's 
largest ginger ale makers is the unconscious tribute of the 
public to so fair an enterprise. 

Ginger ale first came to this country under foreign labels 
about the middle of the last century. It was a luxury of high 
price and enjovable only by people of means. When Lansing 
Millis, a retired Boston railway man, discovered a rather 
remarkable spring on his farm at East Medway, Massachu- 
setts, he had no reason at all to believe that he had taken the 
first step toward giving America its most popular beverage in 
1925. That was in the early 8o's. Ginger ale was still a com- 
parative novelty, but Millis, being somewhat of an epicure, 
knew and liked this new British beverage. He had a small 
bottling plant on his farm whose regular work was the bottling 
of cider. But this new spring gave him an idea, and some 
experimentation led eventually to a remarkable American 
ginger ale — "fully as good as the imported" — so good in fact 
that his friends compared its bubbling clarity wMth Veuve 
Cliquot, the queen of French champagnes. 

Apparentlv it is much the same w^ith ginger ales as with 
the proverbial mouse-trap. The word passed among Millis' 
club friends in town and, unsought, almost unwanted, an infant 
industry soon sat on Lansing Millis' doorstep — the business of 
making Clicquot Club Ginger Ale. 

It was not long before commercial enterprise began, but, 

72 



In 1885, only a few months thereafter, Lansing Millis died and 
the comparatively negligible assets of The Clicquot Club 
Company were advertised as for sale. Probably the heirs and 
assigns of the late Lansing Millis were glad enough to pocket 
a few thousand dollars for a country spring-house, a small 
frame building holding a little bottling machinery, and such 
trademarks, good-will, et cetera as pertained to The Clicquot 
Club Company. Today the spring, the trade-name and the 
good-will are worth many millions of dollars — and, while the 
original frame building is gone, in its place is a sunlit, spotless, 
modern plant, a third of a mile long, whose latest addition — 
about 25% of its total capacity — is alone larger than any other 
complete ginger ale plant in the world. 

When H. Earle Kimball assumed control of the Clicquot 
Club assets he was a boy out of college, but the keen heritage 
of an old Rhode Island ancestry had given him a judgment 
of values and an imagination that turned a gentleman farmer's 
hobby into a great national enterprise. If this were not true, 
how could he have realized that, next to credit, a young bot- 
tler's most important asset is a reliable water source? 

The Clicquot water supply, arising from deep within the 
rock of New England at the head waters of the historic 
Charles River, was the back-log of Clicquot Club prosperity. 
This never-failing water source has never wavered in purity, 
so clear as it comes from the ground as to require no filtration. 
Yet it is always filtered and tested every thirty days for the sake 
of perfect safety. Many bottlers attempt to make ginger ales of 
equal quality from aerated city waters, but although Clicquot 
Club has been ofifered the option on the majority of America's 
most famous spring sites they have stuck to the original source, 
believing that they could never be quite so sure of the quality 
of their blend when made with any other water. 

It has been the same with sugar, ginger and all the lesser 
ingredients of Clicquot Club. Its sugar is bought at a pre- 
mium in barrels to secure absolute purity. Clicquot Club buys 
none but the pick of the Jamaican ginger crop. 

However, it has been admitted that anyone can mix these 
things that go into ginger ale and not make Clicquot Club. 

73 



It is the forty years of priceless experience that make 
Clicquot Club so uniformly good and popular from coast to 
coast. If the Clicquot Club policy had been just one of good 
ingredients, good ginger ales would probably not be made 
in America today, for in the early days of the Clicquot 
Club Company beverage extracts were mixed by guess, sani- 
tation was not a science, bottles were charged and capped 
by hand. 

It was KimbalTs ambition to give the public a ginger 
ale as good as ginger ale could be, but at a price that 
would be fair wherever it was bought. Such an ambition 
meant volume. Volume meant economical manufacture, 
which in turn demanded better machinery and better bot- 
tling practices. 

It is a significant fact that there has been scarcely a single 
important improvement in the manufacture of carbonated bev- 
erages that cannot be traced directly to the Clicquot Club 
plant at Millis. Clicquot installed the first automatic cap- 
ping machine. The great modern filling machines in every 
up-to-date bottler's plant were worked out by engineers who 
used the Clicquot plant as a laboratory. Clicquot Club has 
always been the originator of or the first to employ any device 
or practice that made better ginger ale, if possible at a lower 
cost to the public. 

It goes without saying that publicity had its share in the 
building of this enormous business. The whimsical Clic(]uot 
Eskimo Kid has smiled from millions of magazine and news- 
paper pages for well nigh twenty years. He beams forth 
nightly from the largest electric sign in the world in Times 
Square, New "^'ork. 

Ginger ale is the principal product of The Clicquot Club 
Company. Clic(]uot Club Regular is the same delightful 
blend that Farmer Millis made over forty years ago. Pale 
Dry is the subtle, delicate dry ginger ale which commemorates 
forty years of knowing how to make good drinks. Clicquot 
Club also makes a delicious Sarsaparilla and a Root and a 
Birch Beer. And the Clicquot Kid on every bottle is a guar- 
antee of the goodness inside. 

74 




2,400,000,000 Nickels 

Coca Cola Once Was Mixed with a Kettle 
and a Ladle in the Kitchen of an Old 
Residence. Now Its Manufacture and 
Distribution Require One of the Great- 
est Commercial Chains i n A me r ic a 



A SEARCH for perfection, begun in 1880, has resulted in the 
sale of 2,400,000,000 five-cent drinks of COCA COLA in 
one year. 

Originated before modern chemisty was able to reproduce 
the tastes and colors that occur in nature by means of chemi- 
cal compounds, COCA COLA still remains an old-fashioned 
beverage, composed entirely of natural products. 

Atlanta, Georgia, was the scene of the labors of Dr. J. S. 
Pemberton, the originator of COCA COLA. As a contrast 
to the thirteen modern factories, equipped with every device 
for preserving the purity and wholesomeness of COCA 

75 



COLA, he worked with a kettle and a hidle in the kitchen 
of an oKi residence. 

On the corner below the house was a drug store, equipped 
with a soda fountain, one of the three fountains in the city 
at tliat time, thouj^h the number has increased to 389 now. 
After mixing a new combination in liis kettle, Dr. Pember- 
ton would rush down to the little drug store, mix his svrup 
with carbonated water and taste the drink. 

In 1886 he made his final trial, his sense of taste assured 
him that he had reached perfection, his beverage was ready 
for the market. An associate, F. M. Robinson, suggested the 
name COCA COLA, and that year 26 gallons were sold. 
This ends the first chapter of the romance, the period of 
discovery. 

The second chapter in the story of COCA COLA must 
describe the solution of a problem peculiarly modern — ■ 
distribution. 

Though the taste was good, the product wholesome, its 
manufacture clean, and its results as a thirst-quencher excel- 
lent, there still remained the difficulty of spreading the bev- 
erage and the message from the old residence in Atlanta to 
every town and hamlet of the Ignited States and Canada and 
to 29 foreign countries. 

For this purpose the original Coca Cola Company was 
organized as a close corporation in 1892. The originator had 
died and the destiny of COCA COLA was left in the hands 
of business men, better equipped than he perhaps to effect 
distribution. There had been no predecessor to show them 
how to market a soft drink. No pioneer had blazed the trail. 
Their methods were of necessity original. 

The Coca Cola Company was one of the first companies in 
America to catch the vision of advertising — a means of tell- 
ing the world that you have a quality product — delicious and 
refreshing. 

Beginning with an initial expenditure of $46.00, the adver- 
tising appropriation has grown until at the end of 1924 
more than fortv million dollars had been spent advertising 
COCA COLA.' 

76 



In response to demand, factories were built at Dallas and 
Chicago, then Los Angeles, New York, Cuba and Canada, 
until now 13 factories, 27 warehouses, 1,200 bottlers, 2,300 
jobbers, 115,000 fountain dealers and 300,000 bottle dealers 
form the distribution chain of COCA COLA. 

During the year 1919 the close corporation which was The 
Coca Cola Company was changed into a corporation com- 
posed of thousands of stockholders. 

The direction of the vast COCA COLA business now rests 
in the hands of Robert W. Woodruff. Under his able guid- 
ance, the manufacturing process was perfected and a sales 
organization, commensurate with the advertising develop- 
ment, was built. No small job, this, to cover the United 
States, Canada and Cuba with the actual beverage, the mes- 
sage inviting each passerby to partake and the service to the 
retailer afforded by the monthly visits of our salesmen. This 
task required the genius of organization. 

The search for perfection brought success. The 26 gallons 
have increased to 700,000 times that amount. The romance 
of discovery was followed by the intelligent application of 
modern business methods, and the result is 6,000,000 nickels a 
day spent for COCA COLA. 

Possessing the first essential, quality product, confident in 
the ability of its leader, assured by the cumulative efifect of 
39 years of advertising and the knowledge of steadily increas- 
ing sales, The Coca Cola Company looks forward to the fu- 
ture, realizing that popular demand has made of its product 
an essential. 



77 



118 Years of Prestige 
and Progress 

The Name and Reputatio7i of Col <y ate 
&f Co . ^r^ Amo7ig th e Best and Most Favor- 
ably Known of American Enterprises, 
Here Is the Story from Its Be^innin^. 

Ax American Institution Selling Soap in Every Civilized 
Country of the World — 1925. 

When a smiling grocer fills his customer's order for Octa- 
gon Soap or Fab his cash register tingles merrily and the 
grocer methodically goes on about his business. But behind 
each sale of Colgate soap there is a story — a story that dates 
back to the days before the Revolutionary War — a story of 
hardships, struggles and difficulties which were finally over- 
come by perseverance, honesty and skill. 

On January 25, 1783, a fine baby boy entered the home 
of Robert Colgate. This baby was christened William, and 

78 



in due time was to leave his mark on the Tablet of Time as 
the founder of the house of Colgate & Company. 

In 1798 this same William, at the age of 15, was com- 
pelled to jump into the breach to help support his family, 
which in that year received a crushing blow in the loss by 
faulty title of their Harford County, Maryland, farm. This 
farm represented the family's life savings and the blow came 
as a bolt of lighting out of the blue sky. 

To help his family recover, William secured employment 
with a Baltimore soapmaker. For two years he stuck to this 
Baltimore job, learning how to make soap, and we are told 
was industrious, faithful and highly efficient. Baltimore then, 
as it still is, was a delightful city in which to live and work, 
but William Colgate got a notion that New York would offer 
him a larger opportunity for advancement. So, at the age of 
18, he boarded a stage coach for New York. On the morn- 
ing following his arrival, he presented himself at the offices 
of John Slidell & Co., 50 Broadway, the largest tallow chan- 
dlers of the city, applied for a job, secured one and demon- 
strated that he was master of his trade. 

Young men who are masters of every end of their busi- 
ness are merchants in embryo, and William was no exception. 
He would build a name, too, with which to conjure and so, 
in 1806, being then aged 23, struck out for himself. At No. 6 
Dutch Street he rented a two-story brick building, in which 
he installed the necessary manufacturing equipment. Here he 
modestly began laying the foundation of a business, which for 
1 18 years, from the small beginning there and then made, has 
been growing apace with the nation and with the fame, pres- 
tige and reputation of American industry. 

On this first morning of his business career in the summer 
of 1806 he opened his modest little shop at seven in the morn- 
ing. He waited anxiously all day for the first customer to 
arrive. Finally, toward what normally would have been clos- 
ing time, an elderly gentleman entered, looked curiously 
around, examined the meagre display of soaps critically and 
bought a two-pound bar. Thus the beginning of Colgate & 
Co. and Colgate service. 

79 




Mr. irHliiDit Colgalc 
I'OHiidcr of Colgate c'r Co. 



In 1806, of course, the soap 
business bore slight resemblance 
to the great industry of today. 
For more than three-fourths of 
the soap used in those days was 
made at home. 

William Colgate faced the 
problem of competing with the 
prejudice of the ages and tlic 
skill of each housewife as a soap- 
maker. To do this tactfully 
without hurting the pride of the 
ladies in their own talent re- 
quired discretion, imagination 
and a keen understanding of hu- 
man nature. 

Mr. Colgate faced his task with a will and started making 
soap by improved methods. He standardized its shape and 
began making toilet articles that every woman with refined 
taste and appreciation of merit would instantly sense as supe- 
rior to the home-made varieties. And so the business grew. 

To meet the continually expanding demand he had to en- 
large his equipment substantially and soon built the world's 
biggest kettle, in which he could boil a 45,000-pound batch of 
soap. Today the Colgate factories have 25 giant kettles, ten 
with a capacity of 700,000 pounds each and one of them almost 
1,000,000 pounds, for making their various soaps. 

In 1910 the entire Colgate organization was moved from 
the original Dutch Street address to Jersey City, only show 
and sales rooms being retained in New York for the benefit of 
the trade. Today this Jersey City plant occupies several 
acres and branch plants have been established in Canada, 
France, and Jeffersonville, Ind. 

Perfumes, toilet articles and soaps made by Colgate & Co. 
are sold in every civilized country of the world, and the 
name and reputation of Colgate & Co. today is all that Wil- 
liam Colgate would have had it, a true reflection of the high 
ideals and ideas of its early founder. 

80 ' 




From Lincolnshire to 
the Wide-World 

What the Salads of the World Owe 
to the Mustard Fields of Lincolnshire 
and the Enterprise of Jeremiah Coleman 

In 1854 Jeremiah Colman purchased a small windmill not 
far from the mustard fields of Lincolnshire and the fens of 
England and began the milling and blending of mustard. 
This was the beginning of J. and J. Colman, Limited, now the 
largest mustard business in the world. 

The business prospered and before the difficulties of 
transportation made it necessary to move to a more advan- 
tageous location. The city of Norwich, England, was selected 
because it was in the heart of the finest mustard-growing dis- 
trict in the world. Norwich is today the home of Colman's 
Mustard. 

From manufacturing mustard for the small local markets 
the business continued to grow until Colman's was the leading 

81 



mustard in England. It was then exported first to New Zea- 
land, Australia and South Africa, and later to Canada and 
the United States. Today Colman's Mustard is sold in every 
country in the world. 

The Carrow Works of J. and J. Colman, Ltd., in Nor- 
wich is of tremendous size. The great factories occupy over 
32 acres of land and employ well over 3,000 men and women. 
Four trainloads of Colman's Mustard leave the factories every 
working day. 

The original Jeremiah Colman gradually took into part- 
nership with him three nephews. The family has from the 
beginning always taken an active part in the direction of the 
business. Today six of the seven members of the Board of 
Directors are Colmans. 

Not only have the Colmans been connected with the firm 
since it started but the families of the employees as well. 
Many of them come of families who have worked for the 
company for generations. 

And for generations, too, the yeoman-farmers of the coun- 
tryside in Lincolnshire have made mustard raising their life's 
concern. Today many of them who sell their seed to Col- 
man's come of families who raised and sold Lincolnshire seed 
to the same firm 120 years ago. They take great pride in the 
fact that the mustard they raise is the finest in the world. 

Colman's Mustard is the careful and scientific blending 
of the flour of yellow and black mustard seeds. They are 
first threshed and milled and then separated to remove the 
outer husks. The yellow and black flour is sifted separately 
and then accurately blended. 

Mustard is very difficult to manufacture because the seed 
is very small and the flour contains an exceedingly high per- 
centage of oil. It is particularly difficult to manufacture on a 
small scale because it is hard to keep the quality of the product 
uniform. Even though made in tremendous quantities, Col- 
man's Mustard is constantly tested to insure its quality. The 
men who do this testing have had years of experience and are 
able to keep the mustard absolutely uniform in quality. 

While Colman's Mustard is used in every country in the 

82 




world, the amounts consumed 
vary greatly in different coun- 
tries. It is estimated that the 
per capita consumption of mus- 
tard in the United States is only 
one-twelfth of that in England 
and Australia. 

The Colman advertising in 
the United States is now show- 
ing the American people how 
they may use mustard in more 
ways. The national advertising, 
on a larger scale than ever be- 
fore, is featuring tempting 
salads and other dishes to which 
Colman's Mustard adds an enli- 
vened flavor. 
A comparatively few years ago J. and J. Colman intro- 
duced a mustard relish in England called Savora. It at once 
became popular there, and when taken to the leading coun- 
tries of Europe there also soon became widely used. In 
France, especially, the chefs of all the prominent hotels and 
restaurants find it indispensable in the preparation of many 
of their famous dishes. Savora is today the favorite relish of 
the greatest European chefs. Everywhere, too, the familiar 
Savora bottle appears on the tables and restaurants for patrons 
to use. 

Savora is rapidly developing a world-wide market, side 
by side with Colman's Mustard. The last link in the chain 
is the United States, where, even though very recently intro- 
duced, it already has become a popular dish. 



The Old Windmill Where, in 180U, 

Jeremiah Colman First Made 

Mustard 



83 




Why ''Rastus Grins" 

His Smili/jo- Face 'Bespeaks to All the 
l^ orld and His Family the Superior Excel- 
lence and Purity of One of the First and 
Best Breakfast Cereals^ ''Cream of Wheat'' 

In Grand Forks, North Dakota, in 1895, there was a small 
flour milling concern called the North Dakota Milling Com- 
pany. While they manufactured a high-grade flour, the busi- 
ness had not been unduly prosperous since the panic of 1893 
and the officers were looking for means to increase their earn- 
ing capacity. In this search they found that the product now 
universally known as "Cream of Wheat" made a very deli- 
cious breakfast cereal. Not only was it a delicious cereal, 
but they found it made delicious desserts, puddings, etc. And 
with all this, it had the wonderful properties of a high en- 
ergy value combined with extreme ease of digestion. These 
properties made it especially valuable as a food for all the 
family — for infants, children and grownups alike. 

84 




Mr. Emery Mapcs 
Cream of ITIicat Compnny 



In view of this information 
on the product, the officers of 
the milling company felt they 
had the groundwork for a real 
business — and so Cream of 
Wheat was originated. 

The first Cream of Wheat 
packages were cut by hand from 
cardboard. The first packing 
boxes were made from old lum- 
ber about the mill. For the la- 
bel, Mr. Emery Mapes, an offi- 
cer of the company and the 
man who afterward directed 
the advertising for the company, 
picked out a rough cut of a 
negro's head, which he found among some old ne\\'spaper 
cuts in the office. 

Fifty cases of thirty-six packages each comprised the first 
shipment of Cream of Wheat. This was consigned to the 
company's sales representatives in New York. The agents 
were requested to do their best to market this first lot. By 
noon of the day the shipment reached New York a wire order 
for an additional fifty cases was received by the company. By 
night an additional wire, ordering a car, was received. 

The business soon outgrew the capacity of the mill in 
Grand Forks and the plant was moved to Minneapolis. 
Started in a small way in Minneapolis in 1897, the business 
rapidly outgrew first one and then another plant. Finally, 
in 1903, the company built its present plant in Minneapolis. 
Mr. Mapes was not satisfied with his original negro cut 
for the Cream of Wheat package, and was on the lookout for 
a better figure. On one of his trips to Chicago he dropped 
into Kohlsaat's restaurant for a meal. His waiter was a 
genial, smiling negro, whose face attracted Mr. Mapes. An 
ofTer of $5.00 for a photograph was readily accepted. The 
photograph was made, and that photograph has been the basis 
of all the Cream of Wheat chefs which have appeared since 

85 



then on the millions of Cream of Wheat packages and on the 
advertisements of the company down to the present time. 

Originally, the packing was done hy hand. Now this is all 
done by automatic machinery. The product is never touched 
bv human hands from the time the raw material is delivered 
to the plant until it reaches the consumer's kitchen. 

From a local distribution, through consistent advertising 
in the national magazines, the business of the company has 
grown to be world wide and "Cream of Wheat" to be a 
household word throughout English-speaking countries. 

Always has there been the same careful selection of only 
the best hard wheat for the product; always the same pains- 
taking determination to thoroughly purify and sterilize and 
pack Cream of Wheat, so that its quality can be depended 
upon by the housewife wherever she buys it. These efforts 
have been rewarded by an ever-increasing sale of Cream of 
Wheat and confidence in the product on the part of the con- 
suming public. 



86 




80 Food Delicacies That 
Bear Blue Labels 

The Blue Label Line Enables Us to En- 
joy All the Year Round at a Reasonable 
Price Nearly All the Most Popular 
Products of Farm and Orchard 

The history of Curtice Brothers Company is an interesting 
phase of the story of the canning industry in the United 
States — an industry which, since its beginning in this country 
in 1855, has become an economic necessity, with an output 
last year of over one hundred million cases. 

Curtice Brothers Company, with its well-known line of 
Blue Label Canned Foods, has enjoyed the patronage of the 
discriminating buying public since 1858. 

The main plant is located at Rochester, N. Y., situated 
in the fertile Genesee Valley, which is recognized generally 
as producing fruits and vegetables of superior flavor and 

87 



quality. This has enabled the company to obtain not only the 
finest of raw materials but also to put them up in cans and 
jars the same day they leave the farms and orchards, which 
preserves to a remarkable degree the fresh flavor and tender- 
ness. This policy has been strictly adhered to in locating the 
four other plants which make up the Blue Label organization. 

The inception of the company is an interesting story. Origi- 
nally, the two Curtice brothers and their mother ran a gro- 
cery store, and one day, through some combination of cir- 
cumstances, found themselves with a big supply of fresh toma- 
toes which they could not sell and which at that time, with its 
absence of refrigeration facilities, promised to be a total loss. 

The two Curtice boys, however, had become interested 
in the then new canning process, and after some experimenta- 
tion, succeeded in putting up the tomatoes in glass jars. The 
product so took hold that the grocery business was soon super- 
seded by a growing list of canned vegetables and fruits. 

It is an interesting coincidence, too, that the tomato prod- 
uct with which the business was founded is at present in the 
form of Blue Label Ketchup, the most popular item of a line 
which now consists of over eighty varieties of canned vege- 
tables, fruits, preserves, syrups and similar food delicacies 
which enable the consumer to enjoy, all year round at a reason- 
able cost, the products of the farm and orchard. 

Since 1858 many changes and improvements have taken 
place, of course, in canning methods and equipment, but the 
original policy of maintaing uniform high quality and home- 
kitchen care in preparation remains the same. 

Blue Label Canned Foods wTre among the first of the 
nationally advertised products, and throughout all these years 
have been kept before the public in magazines and other 
media. 

The present organization is just as thoroughly sold on the 
importance of advertising, backed up by aggressive sales 
work, as it realizes that next to producing a quality product 
these are the two fact(jrs which have made Blue Label Foods 
well and favorably known throughout the United States and 
in foreign countries as well. 

88 




What Matters the Price 

of Salt? 

The Alberger Process of Making 
Salt Costs More — but Food 
Manufacturers and General 
Public Alike Have Learned the 
Wo rt h - JVh He n ess of Q u a lity Sa It 

The story of the Diamond Crystal Salt Company is not the 
story of one man. It is, rather, the story of the hopes, the 
discouragements and the ultimate success of a group of men 
who were trying to do a commonplace thing uncommonly 
well. 

Salt was manufactured in Michigan first by the lumber- 
men, who used slabs and sawdust for the fuel and cooperage 
necessary to evaporate the brine and contain the salt. Salt 
made in this way was impure and cheap, being a by-product. 

In 1886 Mr. J. L. Alberger, of Bufifalo, N. Y., "interested 

89 



a number of St. Clair citizens in a new process of making 
salt. A company was formed and Albergcr's process was 
put into operation. A small wooden building contained the 
entire equipment, which could produce only 75 barrels of 
salt a day. 

Not until 10 years after its inception did the company be- 
come a paying proposition. Through those first 10 years it 
was engaged in a continuous struggle for existence. 

It had been expected that the process invented by Alber- 
ger would be more economical. It was soon discovered, how- 
ever, that it was more expensive than any other process of 
making salt. But it made a higher grade, purer salt, with an 
unusual fiake grain, and on this fact the company decided to 
build. 

The consumer had so long been accustomed to regard salt 
as "just salt" that he was slow to appreciate the advantages of 
these fundamental differences. But when the baker, butter- 
maker, meat packer and canner were shown, beyond all ques- 
tion, that high-grade salt improved their products they be- 
came interested. 

But it was slow work. The usual discouragements attendant 
on new enterprises were working overtime. A disastrous 
fire destroyed the plant. The volume of orders coming in at 
that time, however, justified the directors in rebuilding. 
Panics and financial troubles came, were weathered and came 
again. 

It t(Jok faith and pluck and perseverance on the part of the 
directors, but in the end they conquered. Today there are 
few places in the United States where Diamond Crystal and 
Shaker Salt are not well known. Many of the leading food 
manufacturers in the country are using Diamond Crys- 
tal to season their products. Its name has been spread by the 
consistent use of nearly every well-established form of 
advertising. 

The little wooden building, with a capacity of 75 barrels 
of salt a day, has given place to a magnificent plant of brick, 
steel and cement, which can produce 4,500 barrels of high- 
grade salt every 24 hours, besides a vast tonnage of the 

90 



cheaper commercial grades. It stands today a splendid mon- 
ument to the foresight and business acumen of the officers and 
directors who carried the company through its discouraging 
early years. 

The plant of today is a very complete unit. It contains a 
cooper shop, which turns out all the barrels necessary to 
contain the salt. The moisture-proof Shaker cartons are also 
made in the plant to insure the high quality necessary to pro- 
tect the salt. A corps of chemists is continually busy testing 
the brines and the salt to insure the consistent purity of Dia- 
mond Crystal. 

As the business has grown the company has established 
branch offices throughout the country. At the present time 
a large corps of salesmen work out of St. Clair, Boston, New 
York, Chicago, Dallas, Altanta, San Francisco, Toronto and 
Minneapolis. 

It is a far cry from the little plant doing a small local busi- 
ness to the large organization that now has its representatives 
in every corner of this country and whose products are also 
used by people of foreign lands. 



91 




From Plantation to Cup 

A Business Evolution of Over Three- 
Quarters of a Century That Has 
Brought About a Complete Service — 
for Buying, Roasting, Packaging and 
Distributing a Superior Coffee 

The business of the Dwinell-Wright Company began over 
three-quarters of a century ago. It was founded about 18+5 
by Mr. James F. Dwinell, who established a small coffee 
business on one of Boston's many crooked streets under the 
firm name of Dwinell & Company. 

A policy of "The best and nothing but the best" was 
adopted and consistently maintained, a very difficult matter 
at that time, the now familiar sealed and trade-marked pack- 
age not having been developed. 

Mr. George C. Wright, the first President of the Dwinell- 
Wright Company was one of the pioneers of the business, — 
Mr. Dwinell and Mr. Hayward having started in separate 
companies a few years earlier, — about 1849. Afterwards they 
came together. Mr. Hayward retired in 1892, and on Mr. 

92 



DwinelTs death in 1898 a Massachusetts Corporation was 
formed under the title, Dwinell-Wright Company. 

Boston has always been the home of the expert coffee tester 
and blender, and Mr. George C. Wright was looked to as 
being one of the most expert, being gifted with that sixth sense 
necessary in selecting and blending the various types of coffee 
berry so as to produce that elusive flavor and smoothness so 
eagerly sought in coffee, the worlds' most popular drink. 

It was the custom at this time for the coffee buyer to pur- 
chase and judge his green coffee solely by the appearance of 
the berry. Mr. Wright first introduced an innovation in this 
hit-or-miss manner of buying by using an old-fashioned corn 
popper, with which he roasted a small sample of each lot of 
green coffee submitted for examination. At that time, this 
aroused a good deal of good-natured ridicule and banter, but 
today there are very few coffee merchants who do not test each 
lot of coffee by actually cupping and tasting a small sample 
of each lot submitted. The corn popper method would hardly 
be fast enough for the company's present requirements and 
has been partly superseded by a battery of six small roasters 
driven by a motor with small electrical grinding mills. 

Three generations of Wrights, George C. Wright, the 
founder, George S. Wright, the present active President, and 
Warren M. Wright, a member of the Board of Directors, in 
an uninterrupted period of over seventy-five years, have de- 
veloped the science of coffee selection and blending to an 
extremely high degree. Today the users of White House 
Coffee enjoy the benefits of this ripe experience. 

Not only has the stability of the Company been assured by 
the personal and intensive application of the founders of the 
business, but such men as Holland, Miller, Crampton, Perry, 
Bacon, Dickerman, Shaw, Baker and Sale have grown up 
with and have been identified in the business for more than 
twenty-five years each. Their loyal and enthusiastic support 
has been a great factor in the success of the business. 

In the early history of the Company, the two partners did 
all of the manual work of blending and roasting in addition 
to carrying the responsibility of business detail. Sales were 

93 



confined largely to local markets, for rapid distribution as we 
know it today was not thought of. 

Development of the railroad, the telephone and telegraph 
broadened their field ; they installed one of the first telephones 
used in this country, and in 1878 their name was listed among 
the sixty-seven printed in the first telephone directory ever 
issued. The daily output grew steadily in volume. Addi- 
tional help was added, the partners then devoting all their 
time and energy to general management and finance. 

The rapidly growing business taxed their ingenuity in seek- 
ing and devising new processes and methods where quality, if 
possible, could be improved upon and production speeded up 
to meet the rapidly growing demand. 

About this time, it was determined to market their highest 
grade cofifee in sealed packages. This was a radical move. 

Introducing the package was a test of the firms' popularity 
and reputation, because it meant the purchase of cofifec 
''sight unseen," the buyer having faith in the firm's policy of 
"The best and nothing but the best." 

The type of package used was the best obtainable at that 
time, and though it has since been changed as mechanical in- 
genuity has made better packages possible, it is interesting 
that the familiar blue, white and gold label showing a picture 
of the White House has always been retained. 

Success was instantaneous, and from this beginning the 
"White House" package grew more and more popular until 
today a force of over seventy salesmen serve more than 
twenty-five thousand dealers throughout the United States and 
Canada who sell "White House" brand with confidence, 
knowing that over three-quarters of a century of experience in 
the preparation of quality coffee is reflected in the Dwinell- 
Wright Company's "White House" trade-mark. 

The popularity of the new package made larger quarters 
imperative. In 1904, a large modern building, equipped for 
the preparing and handling of coflee and tea exclusively, was 
erected at 31 1-3 19 Summer Street. In 1923, a five story spa- 
cious warehouse, 50 x 150, was erected close to the factory for 
general storage purposes. Every worth-while appliance and 

94 



device which would aid in the sanitary preparation of coffee 
and tea was installed, the finished plant being a model of its 
kind. Surely a history and achievement to be proud of. 

The selection by the Dwinell-Wright Company of the 
double-sealed package was the result of the most careful in- 
vestigation and tests, and machinery manufactured by the 
Pneumatic Scale Corporation, Ltd., was installed to make and 
fill the package automatically and inexpensively. 

These machines operate in a manner "almost human". In 
fact, human fingers could not begin to follow the deft and 
rapid way each carton is picked from a stack by a long knife 
or finger, placing it on a block. 

Small rollers then apply glue to the flaps that make the 
bottom of the carton, and automatic fingers fold them in place. 
Two thousand pounds pressure are applied to press the glued 
flaps together, making sure that a positively tight seal is made. 

After the bottoms are sealed, the moisture-resisting bag is 
placed in the carton. The bag is made automatically, a piece 
of specially prepared paper the proper size being cut out 
from a large roll is formed round a block, then plunged into 
the carton. 

Next comes the weighing and filling. Chutes carry the 
coffee from the floor above to weighing machines fitted with 
two hoppers, the lined carton passing under the first hopper 
which drops about three-quarters of the desired weight of 
coffee. The partly filled carton is then jiggled about, for all 
the world looking as though it were dancing with joy at re- 
ceiving such a pleasant filling. At the second hopper just 
enough coffee is released into the carton to make exactly the 
weight required, no more, no less. 

The filled package is now sealed at the top, the paper lining 
being folded in with the top flaps of the carton, to insure the 
double protective seal, and held in a series of moving belts 
to make sure the adhesive is set and the package tight. 

No human hand has touched the coffee during the process. 
The entire operation of packing being wholly automatic in- 
sures White House Coffee reaching the consumer in a per- 
fectly sanitary condition. 

95 




Of Excellence and 
Enthusiasm 

Two Gf'eat Forces for Success That 
Have United to Promote Sales for 
Fels-Naptha. Here, IVritten by 
Doctor Goldbaunij is the Selling 
Message That Fels-Naptha Has 
Sent Ringing Across the Country 

A GENEKATIOX ago the women of America learned that a 
new product had been perfected to make their housework 
easier. A new kind of soap had been invented which was to 
mark the greatest advance in washing clothes and cleaning the 
home since lye and fats were first combined for cleansing. 

This welcome household aid was the result of combining 
naphtha — that particularly useful dirt loosener — with splen- 
did soap. Taking the name of its maker, in connection with 
its most distinctive feature, this product was called Fels- 
Naptha. 

96 



Women were quick to appreciate it. They found that 
where they formerly had to rub, rub, rub to get clothes clean, 
at the expense of their backs and their fabrics — Fels-Naptha 
did most of the work by gentle soaking. They saw that the 
naphtha made the dirt let go without harm to the most deli- 
cate fabric, and the soapy water promptly flushed the dirt 
away, leaving deep, sweet, wholesome cleanliness. 

To its extra help is added convenience in using, for Fels- 
Naptha does its unusual work in water of any temperature. 
Women accustomed to boiling clothes can continue to do so, 
for with Fels-Naptha the clothes come clean quicker. They 
can use Fels-Naptha with cool or lukewarm water, and its 
extra help is plainly seen and felt. 

Thus Fels-Naptha not only makes clothes clean thor- 
oughly and safely, but it does the work easier and quicker. It 
gives extra washing and cleaning helps that women cannot 
get in any other form. It is absolutely unique — different from 
any other soap or any other form of soap. Why shouldn't 
Fels-Naptha give extra help? 

Fels-Naptha is more than soap. It is more than soap 
naphtha. It is the Fels-Naptha combination of splendid soap 
and naphtha that enables the Golden Bar to give extra help 
to many a work-tired mother or homemaker. 

Since Fels-Naptha first brought lighter work for house- 
wives many soaps of one kind or another have come — and 
many of them have gone, but in all these years, with all the 
progress that has been made in household arts, millions of 
housewives throughout America know that nothing can take 
the place of Fels-Naptha. 

This is particularly significant, when you consider the mul- 
titude of soaps and soap preparations on the market, each 
claiming their particular point of merit and clamoring con- 
tinually for the patronage of the housewife. 

Fels-Naptha's extra help is not confined to washing clothes. 
Wherever soap and water is used for cleaning in the home 
Fels-Naptha carries its extra help and makes the task of clean- 
ing lighter — from brightening painted woodwork, cleaning 
bathtubs, taking spots from rugs and draperies to washing 

97 



dishes and bringing sunshine cleanliness into every corner of 
the home. 

Always Fels-Naptha's tA7;7/ help means safe, wholesome 
cleanliness — more easily and quickly obtained than with just 
soap in any form. 

This cxttd help of Fels-Naptha is, therefore, the basis of 
appeal to soap users everywhere. It is the fundamental differ- 
ence between Fels-Naptha and every other soap. It is Fels- 
Naptha's distinctive virtue. 

There are other good soaps, of course — as far as they go. 
Fels-Naptha is splendid soap that goes farther — it successfully 
combines naphtha with it. Two useful dirt looseners work- 
ing together hand-in-hand — instead of alone. 

This is the ringing message that goes into the homes of 
America's homemakers every month through the Delineator- 
Designer and America's other leading magazines, telling the 
millions who do not know^ what the millions who know Fels- 
Naptha have already found out. 

It is giving the housewife a definite reason for making a 
choice. It is sending the housewives of every community to 
their dealers to ask definitely for Fels-Naptha by name. It 
convinces them of Fels-Naptha's extra help and makes them 
determined to have it. 



98 



Behold — the Humble 
Yeast 

Of the Modest Little Package That 
Has Leavened Billio7is of Loaves of 
Bread for Millions of Housewives — 
aiid Now Is Spreading a New 
Message of Health to Americans 

In 1866 a young man in Vienna named Charles Fleisch- 
mann received a letter from his sister in New York, inviting 
him to come across the ocean to see her married. Young 
Fleischmann probably didn't think twice before accepting that 
invitation, for hadn't all the young men heard about the won- 
ders across the sea? 

So, Charles Fleischmann came to America. He did not 
stay long this time; but he liked what he saw so much that 
he determined to come back — to a home this time, with all 
his goods and hopes. 

Two years later, in 1868, Charles again saw friendly 
Manhattan. Destiny sent him on; he turned his face west- 

99 



ward, followed the old pioneer route down the Ohio and set- 
tled — very permanently — in the good town of Cincinnati. 

Charles Fleischmann had an idea. An idea to base his 
life on. The pioneer spirit that is in all great business men 
was in him. He would not build railroads, he would not build 
banks — he would build yeast. 

He knew bakers and baking — since childhood he had 
known them. And in Austria he had especially studied that 
essential ingredient of bread, the yeast. The bakers them- 
selves made the yeast (or got it from the breweries) — in con- 
venient liquid form — of variable strength — uncertain — 
unreliable. 

Charles Fleischmann determined to make a much better 
yeast — of uniform freshness, quality and efficiency — in a new 
convenient form. He determined to cultivate the "wild" yeast 
strains, improve the little yeast plant by selection until it would 
be a universally recognized product of quality. 

The years have shown how this young man succeeded. 

In 1868 he made and sold the first cake of standardized 
fresh yeast used by an American baker. In 1870 he organized 
the Gaff-Fleischmann Company, which began operations at 
Riverside, near Cincinnati. It was an uphill fight at first. 
Crude hand presses were used. Cooling devices were abso- 
lutely unknown; temperatures could not be controlled. It 
was a far cry to the great testing laboratories, the immense 
batteries of vats and refrigerators, the big, swift machines of 
any one of the Fleischmann factories of today. 

The first crude yeast plant burned down in 1871. When 
it was rebuilt cutting machines were installed and the yeast 
was wrapped in foil, in pound packages for the baker and in 
smaller cakes for the housewife. Growth was rapid from the 
beginning. Today there are eleven Fleischmann factories in 
the United States and Canada. The Peekskill plant is the 
largest — the largest yeast factory in the world. 

In the early '80s Mr. Fleischmann took over the Gafi^ in- 
terests and changed the name of the firm to the Fleischmann 
Company. Charles Fleischmann died in 1897. ^" ^9^5 ^^^ 
Fleischmann Company was reorganized with Julius Fleisch- 

100 




Mr. Joseph Wilshire, President 
The rieisclimann Co. 



mann as president. Julius was 
succeeded at his death, in 1925, 
by Joseph Wilshire. 

From almost the very begin- 
ning the Fleischmann Company 
has been active in advertising. 
At first much educational work 
was necessary. When Fleisch- 
mann's Yeast was first market- 
ed, naturally the baker was sat- 
isfied with the "slop yeast" he 
had always used. So, all the 
way through, the Fleischmann 
Company determined to sell the 
idea of better bread. Baking 
laboratories were installed, ex- 
perts employed ; experimental work in breadmaking was be- 
gun. The Fleischmann Company finds it profitable to help 
the baker without stint. 

The first advertising aimed at the consumer was the cam- 
paign at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876. 
Here were staged a number of practical baking demonstra- 
tions of Vienna bread and rolls. These were followed by an 
extensive house-to-house canvass to win the interest of the 
housewife. Women quickly saw that the new, clean, fresh 
yeast gave better results, and their demand, both for the yeast 
and the bread made with it, had much to do with putting the 
business on its firm basis. 

Since this time the Fleischmann Company has been tire- 
less in advocating better bread — and more bread. One of its 
most ambitious pieces of propaganda has been the familiar 
"Eat more bread" campaigns. Much helpful literature has 
been broadcast under Fleischmann auspices. And there is 
that interesting Fleischmann institution, the training school 
for bakers. 

Perhaps the most striking phase of the Fleischmann busi- 
ness is one of recent development — for it is one that has struck 
the public imagination: Yeast-for-health. Of course, yeast 

101 



has been eaten for healtli for centuries. Physicians have long 
recognized its value. It is an old corrective for skin troubles. 
In Europe, especially, it was used also for constipation, 
stomach disorders and riui-ciown condition. But it is only 
recently, follow int^ notable scientific discoveries and the con- 
sequent growth of general popular interest in right eating, 
that veast has come into its own as a food. 

It was only after the most careful preparation, after long 
experimentation by scientists and medical men that the 
Fleischmann Company ventured into the new field. But with 
a mass of data at hand and medical opinion friendly, it was 
decided to begin consumer advertising in new^spapers and 
magazines in the spring of 1920. Yeast as a food for health 
was an overwhelming success from the beginning. Grateful 
users spread the news. It was this enthusiasm that facilitateti 
the work. Now^ the experience of those who have eaten yeast 
is the basis for the advertising copy; the appeal is intensely 
human; the consumer tells his own story. The four familiar 
ailments which the product benefits are well-nigh universal; 
and Fleischmann's "^'east-for-Health has become a household 
word. 

Much of the credit for the success of both Yeast for bak- 
ing and \'east-for-Health should go to the Fleischmann dis- 
tributing service — to the 2,000 men who supply yeast to 
300,000 grocers, 30,000 bakers and some thousands of soda 
fountains and cafeterias — the men whose devotion in time of 
crisis — storm or flood — has made h^leischmann service famous. 

Two other products, Diamalt and Arkady, for the better 
quality of baker's bread, have been added to the Fleischmann 
line. 

The place that Meisclimann's Yeast has made for itself 
in American life with the baker, the grocer, the housewife 
and more recently with the general public is a noteworthy 
tribute to the power of an idea followed out logically and to 
the rightness of progressive American business methods. 



102 




7,000 Co-Operating 
Fruit Growers 

More Than Half the Citrus Fruit 
of Florida Is Marketed Through the 
Florida Citrus Exchange^ IVhich 
Sells More Than $50,000,000 
fVorth of Fruit Every Year 

The history of the Florida Citrus Exchange is an interest- 
ing one, closely related to the development of the industry 
which the organization serves and intimately connected with 
the progress of central and south Florida. 

Previous to the big freeze of 1895, Florida's citrus indus- 
try was chiefly centered in the northern tier of the counties 
which constitute the present citrus belt. Marion County was 
probably the largest producer of oranges at that time. Only 
a negligible quantity of grapefruit was grown. 

103 



In the season or two preceding the 1895 freeze, Florida's 
citrus production approached five million boxes annually. 
Marketing methods were of a haphazard and unscientific 
character. As the crop increased, returns to growers became 
less and less satisfactory. There was much talk of overpro- 
duction. Grove owners gradually became convinced that 
they must organize to provide a more orderly system of sell- 
ing their output. 

It was finally decided to form a selling agency that would 
be controlled by the growers. This w^as completed at a con- 
vention of 300 delegates, representing 3,000 growers, held at 
Orlando, April 24, 1894. The Florida Fruit and Vegetable 
Growers Association was the name chosen. Its headquarters 
were at Ocala, and the active executive ofBcer was Myron E. 
Gillett. While not strictly cooperative in character, and some- 
what crude in its methods judged by present-day standards, 
this organization was rapidly coming to the front when the 
freeze happened in 1895 and so reduced citrus production that 
for several years marketing problems ceased to trouble Florida 
growers. 

Early in the present century production had begun to 
assume considerable proportions once more. The area of 
citrus production had been rapidly pushed southward. Grape- 
fruit, as well as oranges, were beginning to be regarded as a 
commercial crop. Soon Florida's output in citrus reached 
such volume as to indicate five million boxes or more a year 
in a short time. Marketing methods had been but slightly 
improved and remained in a highly disorganized basis, afford- 
ing growers little protection and failing to provide adequate 
means for the proper distribution of the increasing yields. 
The reviving citrus industry was threatened wqth dissolution, 
due to the fact it was getting on an unprofitable basis. 

Meanwhile, California had entered the citrus field. Mar- 
keting difficulties had threatened the citrus industry of that 
State in a most serious manner. The more aggressive of the 
grow'ers had got together and, taking their cue from the 
earlier effort in Florida, decided upon a cooperative organiza- 
tion. There were any number of ups and downs in the move- 

104 



ment, but finally it gained strength and out of it grew the Cali- 
fornia Fruit Growers Exchange, commonly regarded as the 
oldest of the seasoned cooperatives. It was the natural thing 
for Florida growers, confronted by a situation threatening the 
existence of their business, to look to California for inspira- 
tion and example. 

Dr. F. W. Inman, of Florence Villa, Polk County, took 
the lead in the movement to organize Florida growers. Gath- 
ering about him a group of like-minded men, he consistently, 
insistently and persistently advocated the idea of cooperative 
marketing. Finally he persuaded several dozen of his asso- 
ciates to join him in a trip to California, where weeks were 
spent in study of the California Fruit Growers Exchange. 
Returning to Florida, Dr. Inman and his supporters formed 
the Florida Citrus Exchange, the charter and by-laws closely 
following the California model. 

The Florida Citrus Exchange first got down to business 
in the shipping season of 1909-10. Dr. Inman had been elected 
president and M. E. Gillett general manager. A much larger 
crop of grapefruit and oranges than had ever been produced 
before had to be moved. The formative steps of the movement 
had taken more time than was anticipated, and the Florida 
Citrus Exchange was thrown into active operation really be- 
fore it was able to perform. Climatic conditions of an abnor- 
mal character gave a crop of fruit that was difiicult to handle. 
The net results of the first year's effort were far from pleas- 
ing to most growers, and many of them were immediately "ofif" 
the Exchange for the future. 

Disappointed, but not discouraged. Dr. Inman and most 
of the leaders of the movement stood by the ship. In the years 
that followed there were a number of changes made in the 
management at various times. During the ten years which 
Dr. J. H. Ross served as president and C. E. Stewart, Jr., as 
business manager, the Florida Citrus Exchange showed its 
best growth, increasing its volume from 25 to 35 per cent of 
the crop and building up a loyal membership. 

During the summer of 1924 the Florida Citrus Exchange 
experienced another reorganization, adding a number of new 

105 



members to its ranks and increasing its crop holding to some- 
thing just a little less than 50 per cent of the total Florida pro- 
duction. Dr. Ross retired as president on the anniversary of 
his eightieth birthday and \\as succeeded by L. C. Edwards, 
prominent grower, who still retains that office. 

The membership of the Florida Citrus Exchange now num- 
bers 7,000 cooporative growers, who own and control 123 
associated packing houses in every section of Florida's citrus 
belt. Its headquarters are established at Tampa, from which it 
operates a well-organized sales department, with paid repre- 
sentatives in every leading citrus fruit market of the country 
to sell its trade-marked Sealdsweet and other brands of fruit. 
Its sales business averages nearly $50,000,000 a year. 

Floritia now markets more than 20,000,000 boxes of citrus 
fruit a year, and the growers get better prices than they did 
fifteen years ago, when they produced but five million boxes. 
The Florida Citrus Exchange has scored many accomplish- 
ments in its work of stabilizing that State's fruit industry, 
though with Florida's production still increasing it still has 
plenty of work to do in that direction. That Florida growers 
appreciate the need for cooperative marketing is evidenced 
by the fact that they are joining the Florida Citrus Exchange 
in greater numbers each day. 



106 




The Fascinating Story 
of Foulds 

The Story of the Making and Marketing of 
the Foulds' Line — Macaroni, Spaghetti, 
Noodles, Vermicelli and Other Wheat 
Products and the Famous Kitchen Bouquet 

The Foulds Milling Company was organized in Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, in 1884. The manufacture of macaroni products 
was started in 1890. The Foulds Milling Company was com- 
bined with the National Macaroni Company of Libertyville, 
Illinois, in 1905. The Foulds plant at Libertyville has been 
developed and extended until today it is one of the most mod- 
ern macaroni factories in the United States. 

Mr. F. W. Foulds, the founder of the Foulds' Brand, has 
often been called by those familiar with the macaroni situa- 
tion the "Pioneer of the Industry," as it was through Mr. 
Foulds ability to foresee the possibilities offered in the Amer- 
ican market for quality macaroni plus a sanitary package and 

107 



the wonderful health-giving qualities macaroni offer as a food 
that the Foulds' Brand became famous. 

Back in the '80s macaroni was little known to the Ameri- 
can housewife. It was principally manufactured and con- 
sumed by foreign trade, mostly of Italian origin. The prod- 
ucts oflfered for American consumption were very question- 
able. Pure food laws were not eflective and anyone buying 
macaroni or spaghetti was liable to get so-called "imported" 
goods at a high price, with a fancy label, whereas the goods, 
in many instances, were made in some small factory under 
most unsanitary conditions in one of our American cities. 

These conditions were responsible for the rapid growth 
of the Foulds' Brand, which is packed in a sanitary package 
and advertised as an American food for American people, 
made under the most sanitary conditions. The advertising slo- 
gans first adopted were "Cleanly Made by Americans" and 
"Flavory, Firm and Tender." Year after year, the sales of 
Foulds' have increased almost without interruption, the mar- 
ket being created through the merit of the goods, progressive 
merchandising policy and consumer advertising. 

Perhaps no feature of the development of the Foulds' 
business was more important than the cooperation offered Mr. 
Foulds by the Department of Agriculture and the cooperation 
of the Northwest farmer in encouraging the growth of durum 
wheat, a hard spring wheat introduced into this country some 
years ago from southern Russia, particularly adapted for the 
manufacture of macaroni products. This company, for sev- 
eral years, ofifered a beautiful loving cup to the farmer who 
raised the best crop of durum wheat. 

In 1923 the Foulds Company was formed by the consoli- 
dation of the following companies: The Foulds Milling Co., 
Chicago and Libertyville; Warner Macaroni Co., Syracuse, 
N. Y. ; Woodcock Macaroni Co., Rochester, N. Y. ; Palisade 
Manufacturing Co., manufacturers of Kitchen Bouquet, Ho- 
bcjken, X. J., and just recently the acquisition of the Cone 
C(jmpany of America, making the well-known Havacone ice 
cream cone, which gives another product closely allied with 
the macaroni industry. 

108 



The merchandising position on Foulds' Brand has been 
continually strengthened. The national advertising campaign 
has been increased for 1925, and the feature will be color 
pages in the Delineator and Designer. 

After a thorough investigation and research activities, a 
wonderful cooker has been developed and patented by The 
Foulds Company. It is a pure aluminum cooker, colander 
and self-strainer. This utensil is ideal for cooking Macaroni, 
Spaghetti and Egg Noodles and many vegetables ; in fact, any 
food cooked in boiling water. It cooks without stirring, stick- 
ing or burning. When the housewife uses the Foulds' Cooker 
there need be no fear of scalded hands while draining hot 
water in which foods have been cooked. The inner vessel is 
just lifted and the water completely drains into the outer ket- 
tle. The Cooker is not on sale in stores, except by grocers in 
connection with Foulds' Macaroni Products. The value is 
$3.75. The Foulds Company offers it for $1.89 and a sales 
slip showing that four packages of Foulds' Macaroni Products 
have been purchased from a retail grocer. 

The Foulds Company also publishes a cook book which 
gives many attractive recipes for their products. In addition to 
the regular lines of macaroni goods in packages, such as Long 
Macaroni, Elbow Macaroni, Spaghetti, Egg Noodles (Broad 
or Fine), Vermicelli and Alphabets, under the Foulds' Brand, 
Canned Spaghetti is also marketed under the brand name of 
Foulds' Ready-Cooked Spaghetti. 

A special folder is also distributed to housewives in con- 
nection with Kitchen Bouquet. This product, which has been 
on the market for forty years, is a flavoring and coloring for 
soups, gravies and for use in connection with cooking meats, 
stews and various food combinations. It is used in hotels and 
restaurants as well as in the home. Kitchen Bouquet is adver- 
tised steadily in most of the leading women's magazines. 

In the Foulds' factory every possible care is exercised to 
secure cleanliness and perfect sanitation. Our National Food 
Laws are observed in letter and in spirit and the precautions 
taken are in advance of any legal requirements. 

Semolina, which is the Italian word for cream of wheat, 

109 



may vary considerably in its value as raw material from which 
macaroni is to be made. Realizing this, The Foulds Milling 
Conipanv years ago gaye up the idea of manufacturing their 
own semolina. It has been conclusively demonstrated that 
only those semolina mills that are of sufficient size to maintain 
a competent force of wheat testers and Hour analysts are capa- 
ble of furnishing a uniformly good semolina product through- 
out the year. These mills study the quality of wheat that has 
come from each source of supply and store the best wheat, so 
that throughout the period between wheat crops they are able 
to keep their semolina up to the high standard of quality 
demanded by such manufacturers as Foulds'. 

The manufacturing process begins with a careful sifting 
of the semolina to insure absolute cleanliness of the raw mate- 
rial. The semolina is mixed with water and the dough is then 
dumped from the mixer into a kneader. At the end of the 
kneading period the dough is formed into macaroni and spa- 
ghetti. This is done by forcing the dough, under hydraulic 
pressure, through a cylinder with a flat circular bronze die 
or mold at the bottom of the cylinder. 

In the process of the development of the Foulds' Prod- 
ucts several methods of drying have been tried and discarded 
in favor of the Italian method of hanging the macaroni and 
spaghetti strands on sticks very similar to broom sticks in size 
and length. Some manufacturers pile the macaroni strands 
cut to package length on trays. This was formerly done in 
the Foulds plant, but the stick method of drying fits in better 
with the manufacture of high quality macaroni, because it is 
possible to dry the macaroni more uniformly and in straighter 
form. 

Foulds' modern drying system, which takes forty-eight 
hours, has been determined by long experience. The relative 
humidity is properly regulated so that the air which fans 
over the product has a definite temperature and humidity 
which automatically changes as moisture is given up from 
the macaroni to the air. Twelve hours are allowed for the 
macaroni to cool, and it is then cut into proper lengths for 
packing in packages. Every package is carefully weighed 

110 



and the wrapping and sealing of the packages is done by 
automatic machinery. 
The anaylsis of Foulds' Macaroni is as follows: 

Moisture Protein Fat Carbohydrates Ash 

10.3 13.4 .9 74.1 1.3 

MOISTURE or water is present in all forms of food. It 
forms 6o/,' of the weight of the body of the average 
man, being a component part of all tissues. 

PROTEIN is familiar to us in the lean and gristle of meat, 
the white of eggs and the gluten of wheat. It forms 
about 1 8% by weight of the body of the average 
man. In its several combinations is the most impor- 
tant constituent of our food, as it makes the bone, 
muscle and other tissues. 

FAT is chiefly found in animal foods, as meats, fish, butter, 
etc. It forms about 15^^ by weight of the body of an 
average man. 

CARBOHYDRATES include such compounds as starch, dif- 
ferent kinds of sugar, the fibre of plants and cellu- 
lose. It is found chiefly in vegetable foods, like 
cereal, grains and potatoes. It forms only a small 
portion of body tissue — less than i^y. Starches and 
sugars are important food ingredients, because they 
form an abundant source of energy and are easily 
digested. They may be, and often are, transformed 
into fat in the body. 

ASH or MINERAL MATTER, while it yields little or no 
energy, is indispensable to the body and forms only 
5% or 6% of the body. It is chiefly in the bones and 
teeth, but is present also in the other tissues and in 
solution in the various other fluids. When food or 
body material is burned or digested the mineral con- 
stituents remain as ash. 
The above analysis will serve to illustrate very definitely 

the high food value of Foulds' Macaroni — made from durum 

wheat semolina, which produces a translucent and almost 

transparent product of a rich golden color that requires no 

artificial coloring in the manufacturing. 

Ill 




.>ij 



Sentinel of Clean 
Kitchens 

Gilpin, Langdo7i &' Company Began 80 Years 
Ago in the ff^holesale Drug Business — But 
Today They Sell Their Gi^eat Insecticide, Black 
Flag, Through Jobbers All Across the Country 

Three years before this country was engaged in war with 
Mexico — in 1845 — the firm of Gilpin, Langdon & Company 
had its beginning in a modest little building in Baltimore, Md. 
In those early days of crinolins and beavers, Bernard Gilpin, 
grandfather of D. N. Gilpin, founded the wholesale drug 
business of Gilpin, Bailey & Canby. 

The story of Gilpin, Langdon & Company, manufacturers 
of Black Flag insecticides in powder and liquid forms, is a 
record of a firm adapting itself to meet business changes. 

Primarily, the firm engaged in drug jobbing. Soon it 

112 



branched out, manufacturing pharmaceuticals and grinding 
crude vegetable drugs for percolation. 

In this field Gilpin, Langdon & Company were pioneers. 
It had been customary, prior to that time, for the druggist's 
apprentice boy to spend his spare minutes laboriously crushing 
and beating drugs in a large mortar that was the symbol of 
every pharmacist. Realizing that changes were inevitable, 
Gilpin, Langdon & Company developed to meet them. 

As every pharmacist knows, the same milling operations are 
not suited for all types of drugs; some kinds are more friable 
than others, some contain more resin and oil, some are hard 
and fibrous, while others are easily reduced. 

To meet these varied conditions, special milling apparatus 
was constructed. So successful was Gilpin, Langdon & Com- 
pany in each step that it took that soon its products were recog- 
nized as standard in nearly every pharmaceutical and medical 
school in the country. 

It was during the experiments along these lines that Black 
Flag was produced. By a new method, chemists for Gilpin, 
Langdon succeeded in pulverizing insect flowers to a state 
never before obtained. In short, Pyrethrum — the base of 
Black Flag products — was rendered impalpable — so fine that 
it can be used to clog the tiny pores of insects. And as insects 
breathe through their pores, the result is certain and quick 
death. 

About 1880 it was decided to market this powder on what 
was then considered an extensive scale. Two problems con- 
fronted the manufacturers, the first to find a proper container 
and the second to have assurance that the insecticidal quali- 
ties would not be destroyed with age or exposure. For that 
reason, glass bottles — a radical departure from the general 
loose handling — were used. In packing in bottles, Gilpin, 
Langdon realized they could guarantee Black Flag to reach 
the consumer in all its original strength. 

The result was that Black Flag enjoyed an extensive sale, 
increasing each year. Other powders, such as Dalmation and 
Persian Insect, sold in bulk form, continued to lose favor, 
until today they are rarely heard of. 

113 



Prior to the introduction of Black Flag, several changes 
were made in the firm. Thomas Y. Canby retired in 1864, 
but the tirm name was retained until 1886, at which time H. 
B. Gilpin and T. P. Langdon were admitted to partnership. 
Then the name became Gilpin, Langdon and Company. In 
1900 Mr. Langdon retired. A year later the business was 
incorporated, with H. B. Gilpin as president. 

Meanwhile, Black I^lag sales increased so consistently that 
it was found advisable to separate the jobbing and manu- 
facturing businesses. The former now operates distinctly, 
having no connection with Gilpin, Langdon & Company. 

In 191 2 Mr. D. N. Gilpin became active in the organiza- 
tion. The words 'Tnsect Powder'' were dropped from the 
name of the product, and extensive advertising campaigns 
were planneti and executed. 

But meantime certain changes were taking place in the 
retail drug business which afifected the manufacturer. There 
was an ever-growing tendency on the part of pharmacists to 
save themselves labor and apparatus by purchasing mixtures, 
fluid extracts and syrups ready prepared. 

Gilpin, Langdon & Company adjusted itself to this con- 
dition graduallv. With the enactment of the national prohibi- 
tion law, the drug business received its most telling blow. 
Governmental regulation surrounding the purchase and use of 
alcohol wrought decided changes in the business, each of 
which affected the manufacturer. 

Gilpin, Langdon & Company accordingly discontinued the 
ground drug business in July, 1922. The elimination, how- 
ever, brought increased ability to concentrate on Black Flag. 
In 1924 Liquid Black Flag was introduced and a special build- 
ing and equipment built for its production. 

Gilpin, Langdon & Company distributes its products 
through jobbers in the drug, grocery and hardware lines, not 
selling direct except to chain stores operating more than ten 
units. It maintains resident salesmen in the larger and more 
strategical cities of the country. Recently it extended its busi- 
ness into the Southwest and West Coast, with sales agents in 
Texas for the former and California for the latter. 

114 




The Busy Gold Dust 

Twins 

Of Two Little Lighteiters of Toil 
IVho Have Spread Rase into Millions 
of Kitchens — and of Fairy Soap^ 
Which Has Brightened Still Others 

In 1868 Nathaniel K. Fairbank, the founder of N. K. Fair- 
bank & Co., was interested in refining lard at Chicago. Later 
he manufactured lard compound and Cottolene. 

Eighteen years later the company began to manufacture 
Gold Dust Washing Powder, which has steadily grown in 
popularity until today it is the best-known product of its 
kind in the world. 

The original trade-mark design, showing two little negroes 
sitting in a tub of water, was intended for use on a laundry 
soap wrapper, but when the washing powder was placed on 
the market the design was associated with the name Gold 

115 



Dust. A little later on, the design was changed to the one 
now in use, showing the little fellows sitting on a pile of 
gold coins. 

After about 20 years, the twins were put "into action" in 
much of the advertising, and their vigorous efiforts and cun- 
ning antics doing cleaning stunts soon endeared these little 
chaps to the general public. And today the pair of radio 
artists known as the Gold Dust Twins, whose entertainment 
is broadcast every Tuesday evening from Station WEAF, 
are popularly referred to by radio fans as "Goldy" and 
"Dusty." 

It may be of interest to note that when the advertising 
policy was changed to feature uses of Gold Dust, illustrated 
bv utensils sparkling with cleanliness, sales steadily increased, 
and while the Twins are never omitted from any illustration 
they are now shown only incidentally. 

Gold Dust may be considered practically a staple grocery 
item, and it doubtless has a distribution of as nearly 100% 
as any article in the trade. There is scarcely a hamlet in the 
country where Gold Dust cannot be found, and the claim of 
"more uses and more users than any other soap powder on 
earth'' is fully justified. 

The sale of Gold Dust is not confined to grocery stores 
alone, but to delicatessens, paint and hardware stores, etc., and 
large quantities are bought by mills and garages for the use 
of their workers for cleaning the grease and dirt from their 
hands. The first mission of Gold Dust is to dissolve grease, 
and it lightens housework all the year round, hence it has a 
steady demand, but spring cleaning time is the period of top 
sales. The slogan "Let the Gold Dust Twins Do Your Work" 
is probably known to more people than any other advertising 
slogan in the country. 

A new Gold Dust product has been placed on the market 
in the past year — Gold Dust Scouring Powder. This was done 
in response to continued requests for Gold Dust in a shaker- 
top can. The company went a step further and added a scour- 
ing ingredient. This new "sudsy" Scouring Powder is "differ- 
ent" and is rapidly making and holding new friends. 

116 



Fairy Soap, also an old Fairbank brand, has been on the 
market for forty years, and here again the happy selection of 
a trade mark, the little Fairy girl sitting on a cake of soap, 
and the phrase, "Have You a Little Fairy in Your Home?" 
have helped to pave its way to popularity. 

The high grade of ingredients — all of a quality known as 
"edible" — and the handy shape of the oval cake created a de- 
mand for this popular-priced soap which has grown sub- 
stantially with the years. Here again, in response to numerous 
requests from those who preferred the generous oval cake for 
bath use but who wanted a smaller size for toilet use, a dainty 
new cake is now available for the washstand at the small price 
of five cents a cake. 

Where, in former years, the business of the Fairbanks 
Company included both edible and soap products, when the 
company was reorganized, something over a year ago, under 
the new name — Gold Dust Corporation — the manufacture of 
salad and cooking oils and shortening was discontinued and 
efforts have been confined to soap products alone. Various 
brands of laundry soap also are manufactured for domestic 
and export trade. 

The advertising appropriations of the company have always 
been substantial, and for many years they have been num- 
bered among national advertisers, spending in the neighbor- 
hood of a million dollars a year. 



117 




From a Liking for Fish 

Because Slade Gorton Liked Fish, He 
Started in Gloucester a Fish Business 
That Today Furnishes a Full Line 
of Sea Foods to All the United States 

If it had not happened that Slade Gorton was unusually fond 
of the taste of fish one of the most interesting histories in 
American industry might never have been written. 

Mr. (iorton was a cotton-mill man. For years he had been 
in charge of a mill in Rhode Island. In the year 1862 he 
moved to the New England seashore town of Rockport to 
take up a similar position. 

Now, Rockport is close by the town of Gloucester, and 
Gloucester is, as you may know, America's oldest fishing port. 
It was settled in 1623 by a company that came from England 
especially to engage in the fishing industry, attracted by the 
abundance of cod and other fish in the waters around Cape 
Ann and other New England shores. 

Because of his natural liking for fish, and because every- 

118 



body in and near Gloucester is interested in some measure in 
fishing, Slade Gorton, shortly after his arrival in Rockport, 
decided to take a modest try at the fish business. His begin- 
ning consisted in buying a few barrels at a time of salt mack- 
erel and repacking them in small packages to sell to his 
friends back in Rhode Island. This work he did at home, in 
his cellar, after working hours. 

His "flyer" in the fish business, such as it was, proved a 
success, so it is not surprising that Gorton soon decided to go 
at it on a larger scale. So he tried buying whole catches of 
mackerel on speculation, the mackerel market being more or 
less a fluctuating one. This gave him experience that proved 
both valuable and profitable. It proved so valuable, in fact, 
that, later on, about the year 1870, he decided to give up his 
work in the cotton mill and go into the fish business 
exclusively. 

Codfish was, as it is now, the "staple" of the Gloucester 
trade. So Gorton organized a small company in Gloucester, 
in what is known as the Fort, to prepare and sell salt cod. It 
was so small that in the beginning its list of employees, be- 
sides Mr. Gorton, numbered exactly one. 

But Gorton had the faculty of looking ahead. He saw that 
his market was distinctly at a distance from his source of 
supply, so after a while he began to employ salesmen to 
travel, at gradually increasing distances from Gloucester, to 
sell his product. And the business grew and grew, until, in 
the '80s, it had increased to considerable proportions, though 
it still was a small business in comparison with other Glouces- 
ter companies at that time. But it was a distinct beginning 
of a very successful enterprise. 

As time went by, Mr. Gorton's two sons, Nat and Tom, en- 
tered the business. There was also another young man who, 
at the age of fifteen, started to work for the company as a 
fish skinner. Probably Tom Carroll never dreamed at that 
time that he might later become the head of the largest fish- 
eries company in America. 

When Slade Gorton died, in 1892, it was upon these three 
young men that the task of carrying on the business was left. 

119 



The Gorton boys were salesmen, and very good ones. Tom 
Carroll was what today we call an executive. Furthermore, 
he knew the fish-packing business. Under this new regime, 
the business received a tremendous impulse and increased tre- 
mendously in size within a few years. 

It was about this time that the putting up of food products 
in attractive packages was first becoming popular. Observ- 
ing this trend, these young men saw a future for fish products 
put up in attractive packages. 

Up to that time, seventy-five to eighty per cent of the cod- 
fish shipped from Gloucester was what is known to the trade 
as "whole fish," namely, fish salted and dried but still con- 
taining the bones and with the skin left on. The balance of 
the fish shipped was a choicer grade from which the skins 
but not the bones had been removed. This grade was packed 
in boxes of forty to sixty pounds. 

When the new Gorton organization decided to specialize 
on a package product, they decided, first of all, to send out an 
absolutely boneless codfish in home -size packages of one 
pound, the package to bear an attractive lithographed label 
and the fish to be of the highest grade obtainable. This idea 
developed into one of the greatest successes in the history of 
the fish business. But it didn't develop all at once. In fact, 
the first results weren't at all encouraging. The first order 
was for one box — twenty-four packages. And it was prob- 
ably a year before the sales averaged higher than one box 
per day. 

So new sales methods had to be developed, with the result 
that gradually a fair-sized distribution was reached. But as 
distribution increased the problem of helping the retailer 
make prompt disposal of the product became stronger. 

The idea was basically a good one. The product was an un- 
usually good one. But the public had not yet grasped the 
labor-saving idea that Gorton's boneless codfish in one-pound 
packages offered. Then it was that the idea of advertising 
first entered the situation. 

After considerable planning and discussion, the company 
decided on an appropriation of $2,000 for a year's advertising. 

120 



This advertising was to put over the labor-saving idea in Gor- 
ton's Codfish — No Bones. It was confined at the time largely 
to outdoor signs. Many of these original boards located along 
New England railway lines still tell the Gorton story to 
speeding travelers. 

Everybody knows what happens when advertising that is 
basically right begins. The quality of the product becomes a 
thing to be guarded carefully and increased efficiency in sales- 
manship greatly developed. Under the direction at the fac- 
tory of Thomas J. Carroll and on the road by the Gorton 
brothers, the business soon grew by leaps and bounds. The 
flavor, the convenience and the general excellence of Gorton's 
Codfish — No Bones began to be more and more widely known. 
And as its users increased and its good-will spread, Mr. Car- 
roll realized what a valuable asset this list of friends consti- 
tuted. So he began to originate other products to sell to this 
market, and so the family of Gorton's Fish Products began 
growing. 

It is interesting to note how the working out of the con- 
venience idea again produced an innovation as great as when 
the bulk of the demand was turned from whole codfish to 
semi-prepared codfish in home-size packages. In the fall of 
1919, after many months of experimenting and general prepa- 
ration, what is perhaps the last word in making the house- 
wife's task easy appeared. It is Gorton's Ready-to-Fry Cod- 
fish Cakes, which have since become one of the most success- 
ful sellers in the grocery trade. 

Gorton's Ready-to-Fry is a codfish cake that requires noth- 
ing but frying. It consists of codfish and potato, thoroughly 
cooked, the fish all picked, the potatoes mashed and the whole 
mixed and blended in just the right proportion to make a de- 
licious fish cake, according to the good old New England 
recipe. There is absolutely nothing to do but shape into cakes 
and put them in the frying pan. 

In the grocery trade today almost everyone knows the phe- 
nomenal success of this product. Its sales have increased tre- 
mendously, year by year, and it is one of the most celebrated 
repeat products in the grocery line. 

121 



With these two codfish successes building a large list of 
friendly users, it was easy for Mr. Carroll and his associates 
to establish other Gorton products. Among these are Gor- 
ton's Fish Flake, fish broken up into small pieces for conve- 
nient usai^e in croi]ucttcs, creamed hsh, etc. Another popu- 
lar deyelopment was Gorton's Salad Fish, prepared especially 
for salad use, a product that has in many homes replaced crab 
llakes in making salad. Another and more recent Gorton suc- 
cess is Haddock Chowder, a real New England fish chowder, 
ready to serve with the addition of milk and heat. Salt 
mackerel in cans is another popular Gorton product. Deep 
Sea Roe, Clam Chowder, in Manhattan style as well as New 
England style; Finnan Haddie in dainty glass jars, and many 
other specialties today round out a complete line of Gorton 
deep-sea products, which even includes delicacies packed spe- 
cially for export markets, such as Gorton's Fiskcbollcr, the 
native style fish balls of Norway. 

The Gorton line is not confined exclusively to food prod- 
ucts either. Much of the valuable material which might 
otherwise be waste is converted into useful things. The cod- 
fish skins, for example, being converted into liquid glue, meet- 
ing the great need for an absolutely pure, dependable glue for 
household and professional purposes. Gorton's Liquid Glue 
is already making an excellent reputation for itself. Other 
of these useful by-products include fertilizer made from fish 
bones and waste. 

The success of the original Gorton's Codfish -No Bones 
was not made over night, but so substantially sound was the 
product that when the power of advertising began to be really 
felt the business grew with amazing swiftness. More ships, 
more docking and drying facilities had to be added. And 
this continued at a greatly accelerating rate of speed, so that 
from being one of the smallest industries in Gloucester the 
company, before long, became the leading fishing company 
not only in Gloucester but in all New England. And it did 
not stop there, for today the Gorton Pew Fisheries Company, 
Limited, are America's leaders in the fishing industry. 

Thomas f. CarroU, the b(jy who joined the company at fif- 

122 



teen and who rose through every department of the business 
until he became manager, is today the president of the com- 
pany. It is to Mr. Carroll that the many steps of progress 
and innovation in the fish-packing industry may be attributed. 
It was he whose wisdom and experience steered the company 
through the stormy wartime period, the days when every big 
industry became a target, and the bigger the company the 
bigger the target. 

During the last twenty-five years the fishing industry has 
seen great changes in its methods. As an example, the vessel 
equipment is interesting. Twenty-five years ago, a fishing 
boat of the best kind cost, ready for sea, perhaps $12,000. 
Today the average cost of a boat of similar size would be 
$45,000. Some Gorton boats are valued as high as $56,000. 
This increase in cost is largely due to the increased cost of 
materials and labor. But perhaps the biggest item is the 
equipping of such vessels with engines. 

Today every Gorton vessel is within a comparatively short 
distance of its home port — as far as time is concerned. For it 
is no longer at the mercy of the winds. A catch of fish can 
be brought in at the height of its freshness, instead of possibly 
having to be delayed by calm seas. The net result of this is 
increased catches and improved quality. And it is this im- 
proved — and constantly iiuproving — quality of the Gorton 
products that has made Gorton a name famous for sea foods 
throughout the United States and even abroad. 



123 




A Heritage of Sixty 

Years 

A Tradition of Quality in Gulden Products 
Has Been Handed Down Through a Single 
Family Over the Span of Three Generations 

The history of Gulden's Mustard is the story of a business 
which has been continuously in the hands of one family since 
its founding, many years ago. There has been a personal 
pride in maintaining a standard of quality and excellence 
which has not been confined merely to the commercial, dollar- 
and-cents viewpoint. Probably this has been the outstanding 
reason for the leadership in the mustard field which Gulden 
has held for more than half a century. 

The business was established in 1864 by Mr. Charles Gul- 
den. His son, Mr. Frank Gulden, is now at the head of the 
company. The Gulden plant has been located at the same 
place since 1883. At this location, 46-48-50-52 Elizabeth 

124 



Street, New York City, it occupies four entire buildings. 
Here you will find the latest machinery, giant tanks, store- 
rooms filled with hundreds of sacks of mustard seeds, hun- 
dreds of employees — everything needed to insure a product 
whose flavor and purity will never vary. 

If any one word can sum up the impression that the Gulden 
factory makes upon a visitor it is "cleanliness." This is the 
keynote of the entire establishment. An innumerable quan- 
tity of mustard seeds are cleaned and ground. Raw mate- 
rials are constantly being received — box after box of finished 
products is shipped. Hundreds of operations are necessary, 
employees go about their various tasks, etc. Yet it would be 
difficult to find a private home that could surpass the Gulden 
factory in its atmosphere and condition of cleanliness. One 
little fact illustrates this. Not a single week passes without 
the four buildings being thoroughly cleansed and washed 
from roof to cellar several times. 

To persons unacquainted with its history, or the far-flung 
corners of the world whence its ingredients come, a bottle of 
mustard may be a commonplace object. But it has a romance 
and an interesting storv. The little mustard seed is a veritable 
storehouse of benevolent properties. Unlike pepper, mustard 
does not irritate the stomach or intestines. On the contrary, 
the tongue and olfactory nerves react vigorously to it, and the 
stomach gives it welcome. 

But, as is the case with a great manv articles of food, there 
is a big difference in the quality of different grades or varie- 
ties of mustard seeds. So the greatest care is taken by the 
makers of Gulden's Mustard to obtain only the seeds which 
have the finest flavor. The seeds that go into Gulden's Mus- 
tard are carefully selected, coming from England, Italy and 
Southern California, where the cultivation of mustard seeds 
is given special attention and where soil and growing condi- 
tions are particularly favorable. 

After the divers varieties of mustard seeds have been re- 
ceived at the Gulden factory, they are stored away in dry, airy 
warehouse floors, there to age and mature under the most fa- 
vorable conditions. Before these seeds are used, they are thor- 

125 




(Highly cleaned and sifted twice, 
so that every particle of dust 
and foreign matter is removed. 
The various kinds of mustard 
seeds and spices are mixed ac- 
cording to the secret Gulden 
formula by expert blenders. 
Many of these blenders have 
been in the Gulden employ for 
a number of years and have 
};reat skill. The vinegar which 
is added to improve the flavor 
has been aged and mellowed for 
.1/,-. ci.arics c.uhicu ^cveu ycars. The mixture is 

I-oumicr of Guhh-n's Mnslard grOUUd tO a SmOOth, VclvCty tCX- 

ture by a revolving stone. 

In the last operation, on their way to the grocers' shelves, 
Gulden's Mustard passes through hard rubber pipes (not 
metal) to the filling machines and is placed in clean, sani- 
tary bottles. The capping machine attaches the airtight caps. 
Endless belts then carry the finished product past white-clad 
girls, who place the bottles in the cartons. These cartons are 
conveyed also on endless belts to the shipping room, where 
they are sealed and made ready for transit. No detail, no 
matter how trivial, is overlooked; nothing is left undone to 
improve the flavor and insure the purity of the product. 

A little more than a year ago a new member was added to 
the Gulden family. Gulden's Saladressing Mustard was in- 
troduced — a mild mustard made especially for delicate fla- 
vored foods and for persons who prefer a less pungent mus- 
tard. It has found a ready reception and is particularly pop- 
ular in thousands of homes for use on salads. The reception 
which it was accorded is further evidence of the high regard 
that the name "Gulden's" possesses in American homes. 



126 




The Fame of 57 

• 

Heinz Products Have Made the Nu- 
merals 57 Among the Most Famous Com- 
bination of Digits In the World — Through 
the Combined Purity and Excellence of the 
Products and the Power of Advertising 

In 1869 H. J. Heinz planted a small plot in horseradish. 
With the assistance of two women and a boy, he grated and 
bottled the root. He tested the product with a critical tongue. 
He examined the package with a critical eye. He pronounced 
Heinz Horse-Radish the best that could be produced, and 
the first of the famous 57 Varieties of pure foods was placed 
on the market. 

Two years later so many people had come to like the prod- 
utcs of H. J. Heinz Company that the business was moved 
from Sharpsburg, where it began, to quarters in the central 

127 



part of Pittsburgh. But this section of the city did not pro- 
vide adequate space for the rapidly growing business, and 
the main plant was moved to the north bank of the Allegheny 
River, within the corporate limits of Pittsburgh. 

Death claimed the founder in 1919, but the fundamental 
principles he established still dominate the activities of H. J. 
Heinz Company in its international operations. Howard 
Heinz, a son of the founder, is now the directing head. 

Today the main plant occupies a group of buildings with 
fifty acres of floor space. There are twenty-five branch fac- 
tories in the United States, Canada, England and Spain. 

The thought that led Mr. Heinz to raise the raw material 
for his first product still governs. As far as possible, Heinz 
Company owns and controls its products from the seed to the 
prepared food container. Tomatoes, pickles and other prod- 
uce must be prepared and packed within a few hours after 
they leave the garden, to make the best and purest foods. Only 
ripe tomatoes arc used and within twenty-four hours after they 
are picked from the vine they are converted into Ketchup, 
Chili Sauce and other products. Heinz gardens are located 
where the best raw materials grow, and in these districts fac- 
tories are located. 

Heinz factories, linked with Heinz gardens, dot the United 
States from coast to coast, reach up into Canada and over into 
England and Spain. The Spanish factory prepares the olives 
and olive oil from the harvest of Spain's best groves. 

The company absorbs the product of 150,000 acres each 
vear, and approximately 150,000 people are engaged in plant- 
ing and harvesting the crops and preparing the food for the 
consumer. 

With an international producing system, Heinz Company 
maintains a world-wide sales organization. It has seventy 
sales offices and warehouses, its salesmen travel the Occident 
and the Orient, and its representatives are active in every com- 
mercial center. 

Heinz Company operates its own printing plant, bottle 
factory, can-making factory, box factory, tank factory, car- 
repair shop and freight and tank car lines. 

128 




In the building of Heinz 
business there have been many 
outstanding incidents. One in 
which the public was vitally 
concerned was the company's 
battle for pure food laws. The 
first requirement in Heinz 
plants — even in the making of 
the first horseradish — has always 
been purity. The day came 
when the company took the lead 
in demanding laws which would 
protect the public from the use 
of preservatives, coloring mat- 
ter and substitutes and adultera- 
tions in the preparation of 

foods. The founder stamped the first bottle of Heinz Horse- 
Radish as a pure food product of the highest quality, and 
since their origin the remainder of the 57 Varieties have been 
kept up to those standards. 

Heinz Company was a pioneer in welfare work, and its 
relations with its employees led to a celebration, a few months 
ago, of fifty-five years of mutual good-will and understanding. 
This celebration took place on the day the employees unveiled 
a memorial to the founder of the business. Primary consider- 
ation is given to the welfare of employees, for in Heinz organ- 
ization heart-power is considered greater than man-power. 

"From the gardens of the world to the tables of the world" 
— this is a brief description of the business that has been built 
up from the start in the little horseradish patch in Sharpsburg. 



Mr. Hoicard Heinz, President 
H. J. Heine Company 



129 




America Taps the Orient 
for Sweets 

Hills Brothei's Have Brought the Date 
and the Cocoanut to America and IVith 
Their Advertising Enterprise Broadened 
Their Market into the Millions 

One morning in the early fall of the year 1871 the doors of a 
small building on Fulton Street, New York City, were opened 
by a new tenant for the first time. To the older occupants of 
the district, and to the trade that came there to buy, he prob- 
ably seemed far too young and too inexperienced for the highly 
speculative business in which he was setting forth. But that 
young man was John Hills and although he was only 24 years 
old and although business was in the process of readjustment 
after a long war and times were not easy for new ventures his 
business in foreign dried fruits, domestic lemons, oranges, 

130 



Spanish grapes, foreign nuts, peanuts, etc., began to grow. 

John Hills was small of stature, had a sharp eye and quic' 
step, was brimming with courage and never let an oppor- 
tunity pass to earn an honest dollar. To the trade he soon 
became afifectionately known as ''The Little Boss." His friends 
loved him and his competitors both feared and admired him. 

It is difficult to get a true picture of how business was 
done in those early days. Practically all imported goods were 
carried in sailing vessels; there was no cable communication 
with Europe; telephones and typewriters were unknown, and 
even railroad transportation was slow and uncertain. But 
Hills was a tireless worker and depended largely upon his 
own energies for success. During the '70s and '80s he devel- 
oped the green fruit end of his business extensively, but with 
the development of the Florida and California orchards the 
demand for imported green fruits fell ofif and, in consequence, 
the dried fruit end of the business came forward. 

In 1893 the corporation known as The Hills Brothers Com- 
pany was organized by John Hills and his brother William. 
John Hills was its first president and continued in active con- 
trol of the policies of the business until his death in 1902. The 
Hills Brothers Company, as a corporation, decided to manu- 
facture at least a part of its own products, and in the spring 
of 1893 foundations were laid for the first factory building 
at Brooklyn, N. Y. That first factory structure was a crude, 
three-story affair, without elevators or power of any kind 
and only a few gas lights. The only means of getting any- 
thing in or out of the building was a hand windlass. Today 
this same site holds a great factory plant, thoroughly modern 
in every respect. The buildings contain about 300,000 square 
feet of floor space, and all machinery and equipment are of 
the most modern type. There is a cold-storage plant, power 
plants and laboratories devoted to chemical and bacteriologi- 
cal control, research and chemical engineering. There are 
rest rooms, dining rooms and dispensaries for the hundreds of 
employees. 

Citron was the first product manufactured in the original 
plant, and in the course of a year large quantities of citron, 

131 




Mr. I.uiius A'. luistinait. I'l-csidoit 
Tlic Hills Brothers Co. 



lemon and orange peel were 
lurned out. This business occu- 
pied the entire building and 
grew so rapidly that it was soon 
necessary to add two more 
stories to the building, two ele- 
vators and a boiler house. 

About 1895 the packing of 
cleaned currants in cartons was 
undertaken, as the package busi- 
ness was then beginning in 
earnest. At this time, too, 
wrapped dates in one and two 
pound packages were added, 
but these simply were wrapped 
in paper and tied with a string. 
Five years later the manufacture of cocoanut began, and as 
more floor space was needed another building was leased. 

As the date business progressed it was decided in the '90s 
to establish a branch office at Basrah, Mesopotamia, so as 
to make it no longer necessary to depend upon London job- 
bers for supplies of dates. Mr. Frank H. White, the present 
vice-president of the company, went there for this purpose 
and started an organization for shipping direct to the United 
States, which is in effect today. Great was the excitement 
among the fruit trade of New York w^hen that first direct 
steamer, laden with dates, steamed into the harbor. Now, 
every fall, large steamers are chartered by the company and 
dates are brought direct from Basrah to Brooklyn. Beit 
Hills, known in Mesopotamia as the House of Hills, on the 
Shatt-el-Arab, watches over the date interests of the company. 
It was during this period, also, that arrangements were 
made to have the company's own representative in Smyrna to 
pack figs. Ever since then Aram Hamparzum has packed the 
best of the Smyrna fig crop under the now well-known Camel 
Brand. Along with these developments, the relations between 
the company and other foreign representatives have been con- 
tinually fostered and firmly cemented. \n Spain, Italy, France, 

132 



Greece, Brazil and the West Indian ports the growth of the 
company's purchasing power has been fully consistent with 
the progress made in home territory. 

It was in 1900, also, that the business reached such propor- 
tions that a branch organization was established in Chicago 
to facilitate the distribution of goods to the great Middle 
Western territory. Two years later, when John Hills died, 
there followed a crisis that was to this business almost what the 
Civil War was to the United States. It was hit by a slough 
of general depression; there was an easing up in the enforce- 
ment of the established policies; uncertainties as to imports 
crept in and the entire structure was soon in a precarious state. 

Then came a new period of the business covering such devel- 
opments in both selling and manufacturing that the financial 
standing of the company reached a high mark in a short 
period of years. Mr. L. R. Eastman became president of the 
company. Mr. Eastman was a successful lawyer in Boston, 
who had married one of the daughters of John Hills and who 
had been urged by the largest stockholders in the company 
to come to its aid. 

Improvements were gradually made, both in the manu- 
facturing and selling of the products. The distinct advan- 
tages of package goods over bulk were more clearly realized 
and the decision to market carton dates under the Dromedary 
Brand by an aggressive advertising campaign were changes 
that called for new sales policies. In 1910 the first publicity 
campaign was launched and Dromedary was introduced to 
the world as a standard of business integrity and high quality, 
which, in those days of changing brands and price wars, was 
unusual. That year $16,000 was spent in advertising and 
12,000 cases of Dromedary Dates were sold. From that time 
on, the date end of the business has grown rapidly, with the 
volume still mounting higher year after year. In 191 2 a 
branch office was opened in Pittsburgh, and it was about this 
time that a new specialty was added called Dromedary Cocoa- 
nut. The fact that package cocoanut entered an intensively 
competitive field made an entirely new problem of it. The 
cocoanut business was being generally conducted on the pre- 

133 



mium plan, with free deals of all kinds to dealers; but this 
accepted method of merchandising did not conform to The 
Hills Brothers Company's principles. Package cocoanut, 
therefore, was sold according to the same policies that had 
made package dates a success. 

Succeeding years saw other branch offices established and 
three important additions to the specialty line. A method of 
slicing citron, lemon and orange peel was evolved and these 
products were placed on the market, sliced and candied, in 
convenient-sized packages, with the consequent elimination of 
shrinkage, waste and unnecessary handling. Smyrna Figs, 
made deliciously tender by processing in a light syrup, w^re 
offered to the public in cans. Then came an interest in the 
potentialities of the canned grapefruit industry, which resulted 
in the organization of The Hills Brothers Company of Flor- 
ida, operating a modern packing plant at Clearwater, Florida, 
where great progress has been made in canning the nation's 
breakfast fruit. 

An interesting development in the company policy in recent 
years has been the establishment of a personnel department 
under the direction of an assistant factory superintendent. The 
management felt for many years that a study of human rela- 
tions is as important to the growth of an industrial organiza- 
tion as the study of factory processes. To this end an exhaus- 
tive study has been made of all factors entering into the rela- 
tions of employees with the company, in the hope that such 
a study would reveal those ways by which each employee 
might be helped to grow and prosper in its service. A well- 
knit production unit has resulted, with perhaps a higher level 
of individual efficiency and well-being than is common in this 
country today. 

The entire organization is imbued with a spirit of service 
obligation to the consuming public. It seriously assumes its 
share of the responsibilites of solving the problem of the ex- 
cessive cost of distribution, and is constantly studying and 
experimenting with distributive processes. 



34 



„-.v»ai&i,v> 


' ■mmammt 


'^ .. 


^^ 




/a»^- 




■ ^M^ 


fl 




l^siill^ 


^^^I^HHflilH 


I^BBH^ 



From Sweet Fern, 
Sassafras and Teaberries 

The Origin of the Famous Hires Root- 
Beer Pf^as a Farmer's IVife's Mixture 
of Roots y Barks, Herbs and Berries for 
Which Charles E. Hires Developed in 
1922 a Market of 700,000,000 Glasses 

In December, 1869, after serving an apprenticeship and 
clerkship in a retail drug store for six years, Charles E. Hires 
established this business when he opened a retail drug store at 
Sixth and Spruce Streets, Philadelphia, Pa. He had studied 
at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and the Jefferson 
Hospital and had made a special study of the medicinal and 
food value of roots, barks, plants, herbs, etc. He soon began 
to put up various flavoring extracts, which he sold to other 
druggists through wholesale drug houses, and this took him 
out of the retail drug line into the manufacturing business. 
While vacationing on a New Jersey farm, the farmer's wife 

135 



served a drink which she made from sweet fern, sassafras and 
teaberries, gathered locally. This he liked so much that on 
returning to his store after his vacation he made many experi- 
ments with various mixtures of roots, barks, herbs and ber- 
ries in order to make as well-balanced and healthful a mix- 
ture as possible and at the same time one that would please 
the taste. He also consulted several physicians and food spe- 
cialists. When he was satisfied that he had found the combi- 
nation of roots, barks, etc., that would make both a healthful 
and pleasing drink he decided to pack and market his product 
under the name of Hires rootbeer. Originally, this was put 
up in a small yellow package of the ground-up roots, barks, 
herbs and berries which sold to the consumer for 25 cents. It 
was necessary then for the housewife to steep these ground-up 
roots, barks, herbs and berries in boiling water in order to 
make rootbeer. Within a few years, however, Mr. Hires 
realized that there would be a much larger sale for his product 
if the housewife could be saved the work of boiling and strain- 
ing, so this part of the process he decided to do in his own 
factory. Thereafter, the buyer had the choice of buying the 
yellow package of roots, barks, herbs and berries or a three- 
ounce bottle of the juices of the same materials. The product 
was packed in both "dry" and liquid form until recent years. 

In first making rootbeer extract Mr. Hires had in mind a 
product for household use, to be made up with yeast and sugar 
and so carbonated. Later, when soda fountains became more 
and more common, a special solution was put up in pint bot- 
tles for soda fountain use. There soon developed a demand for 
a finished, ready-to-use fountain syrup to be served in places 
where the proprietor did not have time or equipment to make 
up his own syrup from the solution. In 1904 we decided to 
pack a finished, ready-to-use fountain syrup. With this new 
product, thousands of new customers were made, such as cigar 
stores, pool rooms, parks, 5 and 10 cent stores, etc. 

In 1877 Mr. Hires started to advertise his product in the 
Philadelphia newspapers, using five-line, single-column ad- 
vertisements. Hangers were put up in the stores. During the 
'80s he had used larger space in the newspapers, and on several 

136 



occasions had taken full-page advertisements, but these adver- 
tisements did not break the regular newspaper columns but 
consisted of closely typed reading matter. In 1889 he per- 
suaded Mr. Childs, the editor of the Ledger, to break the 
columns of his newspaper for a full-page advertisement. 
This was the first full-page advertisement that appeared in 
the Philadelphia Public Ledger, as it had always been the cus- 
tom not to break columns. The effect on a public, used to 
advertisements for the most part in the form of small printed 
notices, was sensational. Later in the '80s newspapers in other 
cities were used and also a number of women's magazines and 
farm papers. Supplementing this general publicity, window 
displays, hangers, stickers and such novelties as whistles, pen- 
cils, etc., were used. Nearly every year has seen an increase 
in the advertising appropriation, and from a sale the first year 
of 115,200 glasses of rootbeer Mr. Hires has seen his business 
grow to a sale of about 700,000,000 glasses in 1922. 

When Mr. Hires gave up his retail drug store to become a 
manufacturer he had very definite ideals up to which he 
resolved to live and conduct his business, with a sure faith 
that high ideals and hard work would bring success, and 
a success that would not just mean wealth but that much 
finer and worthwhile success which brings with it the joy and 
satisfaction of a clear conscience and honorable service. He 
resolved, therefore, that everything that he made should be 
as well made as he knew how to make it and that everything 
that he did should be as well done as he knew how to do it. 
He made candy, he made soap, and he made other things, and 
each was made of the finest materials that he could buy. When 
he decided to make a beverage he went to the greatest pains 
to make sure that it should be the purest and most wholesome 
product possible. This required expensive material, but he 
did not stop at expense, because he was sure that eventually the 
best would win recognition. In his beverages he never used 
chemicals or artificial flavoring oils or artificial sweetening, 
never anything but the finest roots, barks, herbs and berries 
and pure cane sugar, and as his product was in the beginning 
so it is today — the best that science and money can make it. 

137 




As in a Crystal Ball — 

The Cjystal Gazer Looking into the 
Translucent Depths of a Dish of 
''America's Most Famous Dessert" 
Mi^ht See the Natives of Five Conti- 
nents Striving for His Pleasure 

It was Mr. Orator F. Woodward, of Le Roy, New York, who, 
in 1896, conceived the idea that there was a field for ready 
prepared gelatine desserts. Mr. Woodward developed his 
idea by manufacturing, through simple methods at first, a 
jelly powder that could easily be used by the housewife, and 
one which was reasonable enough in price to be within the 
reach of all classes. This product, which at first was marketed 
locally and which has since become one of America's leading 
food products, was given the name of Jell-O. 

While Jell-O had its origin in a kitchen of Western New 
"^'ork State, it appears that Peter Cooper carried on somewhat 
similar experiments as early as 1845. In that year, indeed, he 
filed specifications in the United States Patent Office for 
"making a transparent concentrated or solidified jelly, con- 
taining all the ingredients fitting it for table use in a portable 

138 



form and requiring only the addition of a prescribed quantity 
of hot water to dissolve it, when it may be poured into glasses 
or molds and when cold will be fit for use." 

And so, if you have grown to take as a matter of course this 
dessert that has become common to so many tables, you may 
be surprised to know that no less a figure than Peter Cooper, 
inventor, philanthropist, founder of Cooper Union, construc- 
tor of the first steam locomotive in America, the man who 
helped lay the first Atlantic cable and who was a candidate 
for the Presidency of the United States, devoted considerable 
of his time and inventive effort to the kind of food product 
that was destined, years afterward, to reach it final develop- 
ment in Jell-O. 

The prime object of Mr. Woodward and his associates has 
always been to produce a product of high quality, regardless 
of the cost of manufacture. Nothing has ever been spared in 
making Jell-O ioo% quality. The materials used in the 
manufacture of Jell-O are carefully selected and come from 
chosen markets in every corner of the world. 

The next time you find a mold of Jell-O on your table, if 
you will peer into its transparent depths like a crystal gazer 
you may see this well-known dessert in a new and romantic 
light. If you will look intently, you will discover hordes of 
brown-skinned, tropical natives, cultivating, cutting and refin- 
ing sugar cane under the pleasant tropical sun, and a great 
white fleet of ships coming up through the Caribbean Sea 
and up through the Atlantic Ocean, bearing the tons of sugar 
that go into Jell-O. 

Looking closer, you will discover miles of French vine- 
yards, with ruddy-faced, sabot-shod peasants working with 
pruning knives and baskets in the fields that produce the tar- 
taric acid that gives its tang to Jell-O. You will observe 
Sicily's sun-drenched orange and lemon groves, Brazil's choco- 
late lands, and America's incomparable raspberry patches, 
strawberry fields and cherry orchards all contribute their share 
to the natural fruit flavors that permeate this wholesome des- 
sert. You will see the sails and funnels along French, Dutch 
and British seacoasts of ships bringing the gelatine to which 

139 



Jell-O owes its ability to assume, quickly and appetizingly, 
any shape or moki that your fancy may prefer. And you will 
see the curious oxcarts of Canary and Cape Verde, and cara- 
vans crossing India, bearing rare raw materials that impart 
the brilliant, edible coloring to the dessert that holds the appe- 
tite of many millions. 

During the comparatively short period of 28 years, the 
Jell-() Company, Inc., has grown from an infant institution 
to an international organization. It has gradually progressed 
from the tiny kitchen to a world industry. 

The demand for the product, which at first was supplied by 
hand-made and old-fashioned methods, has grown by leaps 
and bounds, until today as many as 54,000 dozen packages of 
Jell-O are often sent from Jell-O's clean and sanitary home in 
a single day. Last year more than 100,000,000 packages of 
Jell-O were eaten in the United States. 

Unlike most of the household products that have attained a 
widespread popular acceptance, Jell-O, which has been con- 
sistently advertised as "America's Most Famous Dessert," has 
not gained its popularity as a result of the application of the 
usual merchandising pressure that musters large numbers of 
dealers and through its dealers forces its goods upon the con- 
sumer. In the case of Jell-O it has been the other way round. 
The merits of Jell-O have been advertised direct to the con- 
sumer and the consumer has demanded it from the retailer. 
There has never been a dealers' convention at the Jell-O plant. 

A salesman was recently sent to the State of Montana. He 
was the first Jell-O representative who had ever been in Mon- 
tana, and he found to his surprise that 98%of the grocery stores 
of the State already had the product on their shelves due solely 
to popular demand. More than go'/t of all the grocery stores 
in America handle Jell-O. 

There is something festive looking about Jell-O on the table. 
It carries into the poorest homes the beguiling appetite appeal 
of not only a quickly prepared, nutritious dessert for the whole 
family at a low cost of a few cents, but it contributes with its 
beauty of form and beauty of color, something which hardly 
any other dessert can ofTer. 

140 




"Sweet Are the Uses 
of" — Junket 

Memorialized in English Literature 
Through the Centuries, Junket Found Its 
JVay in a Brief Few Years from Obscurity 
into the High Favor of Millio7'is of Americans 

Thirty-five years ago "Junket" was an almost unknown 
word in this country. Some of us remember how our mothers 
prepared "Curds and Whey" or "Slip" from new milk with 
a piece of calf's stomach carefully preserved for the purpose. 
This was especially done in English settlements, for in Europe 
the dish is still hardly known outside of England where 
"Devonshire Junket" has long been relished as an exquisite 
delicacy. There we find it also mentioned by Spenser: 
"And beare with you both wine and 
''Juncates" fit and bid him eat." 



By Milton: 



'With stories told of many a feat 
How faery Mab the Junkets eat." 

141 



While later Sir Walter Besant says: 

"S/w uuidc him stand by an J help make a 
Junket which Devonshire people believe 
cannot be made outside of Dartmoor." 

Parties would make excursions or picnics from London to 
Devonshire to enjoy their "Curds and Whey'' with clotted 
cream heaped on top of the coagulated milk. "A Junketing 
Trip'' is a well known expression, yet few people know its 
origin. When the good old Londoners went out on these 
periodical picnics away from home they were apt to indulge 
in something stronger than "Curds and Whey" and the word 
"Junket," therefore, acquired a rather disreputable meaning. 
However, as it is not necessary in these days for any of us to 
leave our homes to obtain this delicacy, "Junket" comes back 
with a high character and is fast becoming a household word. 

About 1890 Chr. Hansen's Laboratory brought Junket 
Tablets on the market in which the rennet ferment was offered 
absolutely pure, in a definite quantity of known strength. 
The foundation for junket as a general food was thereby laid 
and a few years later the literature of domestic economy was 
enriched bv new recipes for junket, carefully formulated and 
tested by such well known authorities as Sarah Tyson Rorer, 
Janet McKenzie Hill, Mary J. Lincoln, Cornelia C. Bedford 
and Miss Emma H. Crane. 

Junket was soon recognized as an important dessert which, 
on account of its simplicity, delicacy, and undisputed quali- 
ties as a perfect healthfood, deserved a prominent place on 
the table of every household as well as in practical dietetics. 

MILK, containing all the nutrients necessary for the sus- 
tenance of life, and being the one food generally resorted to 
in almost all cases of weak digestion, can, if prepared with 
the Junket Tablets, be given in a form which makes it an ideal 
healthfood. 

One Junket Tablet dissolved in a tablespoonful of cold 
water and added to a pint of lukewarm milk, which has been 
sweetened and flavored to taste, in ten to fifteen minutes makes 
a dainty pudding, as if by magic, converting the milk into a 
smooth, delicate custard, the most palatable and easily di- 

142 



gested form in which it can be taken by children, invalids, 
or anyone. As soon as the milk is firmly congealed, it is set 
to cool until it is to be served. 

By using different flavors in junket, whipped cream, choco- 
late, a bit of fruit, a great variety of delicious desserts is 
afforded to please the most fastidious appetite. 

Junket Powder is the newest form of Junket, prepared in 
six natural flavors and sweetened, for making delicious des- 
serts in a jiffy. 

A popular use of Junket Tablets or Powder today is for 
making junket ice cream which, it has been proven, for 
smoothness, delicacy, and especially in regard to digestibility, 
surpasses anything of the kind ever known. 

Eaten with a spoon in the form of junket, being gradually 
mixed with saliva, milk is much more perfectly acted upon 
by the digestive ferments than if swallowed by the glassful, 
when it is apt to form into one large lump of curd in the 
stomach, which is not readily penetrated by the digestive 
juices and may easily cause trouble in the intestines. 

Thus everything that can be said of milk as a food means 
more when it's used with Junket. This gives you milk in its 
perfect form, especially good for growing children. 

The Junket Folks have their main factory at Little Falls, 
N. Y. and a Canadian factory at Toronto. They manufacture 
Junket Tablets and Junket Powder which are used every- 
where on the American Continent as well as in Porto Rico, 
Philippines, Cuba, Mexico, and, in fact, all over the world. 

Branch Offices at Philadelphia and Milwaukee and agen- 
cies in all large cities distribute the Junket Products through 
wholesale grocers and druggists. 

A model kitchen is maintained at the Laboratory where 
recipes are tested and new uses are found for making junket 
a real help for our busy American housekeepers. 

A domestic science department is in constant communica- 
tion with all domestic science teachers at schools and colleges 
all over the land. 

Junket Desserts are becoming more popular every year as 
shown by the steady increase in the sale of Junket Products. 

143 




On the Shelves of 

250,000 American 

Grocery Stores 

/;; 1891 Charles B. Knox, with Savings 
of $5,000 and Some Bor7'owed Capital, 
Launched a Business at Johnstown, 
N. Y., That Today, Under the Man- 
agement of His H^idow, Is One of 
America's Most Romantic Businesses 

Some forty years ago, there lived in New York a young sales- 
man by the name of Charles B. Knox. He had the very firmly 
fixed idea that a wife should be her husband's business partner, 
so when he married the girl he loved he put his theories into 
practice from the start. 

Mr. Knox's salary was very modest at the time of his mar- 
riage (he had only $ii.oo left after paying the officiating 
minister) but it was raised very rapidly, so that in 1891, when 
he had the opportunity to go into the gelatine business, he had 
saved $5,000.00. With this and some borrowed capital, he and 

144 



Mrs. Knox started the business in Johnstown, New York, 
where the present gelatine plant is now located. Mr. Knox 
hadn't enough money to go on the road for gelatine alone, so 
he sold gloves on commission as a side line until the gelatine 
business was well on the road to success. 

Charles B. Knox was a great believer in the power of adver- 
tising, and he was one of the country's pioneers in the matter 
of original publicity to attract attention to his products. As 
soon as he had sufficient distribution, he began in a small way 
to advertise Knox Sparkling Gelatine. His first appropriation 
was less than $ioo, and for the first few years the amounts were 
not a great deal larger, but his methods were so unique that the 
drawing power of his advertisements was out of all proportion 
to his expenditures. And from that day to the present one, 
Knox Sparkling Gelatine has appeared conspicuously and con- 
sistently in all the leading magazines of the country. 

In 1908 Mr. Knox died, and Mrs. Knox had to decide on one 
of three courses — that of having a manager run the business for 
her; of selling the business, or of running it herself. She 
decided that she would take it over herself and, although she 
knew practically nothing about the actual details of the busi- 
ness, she did know the housewife's point of view and she did 
know her own product. 

The business problems mastered, she turned her attention to 
creating new recipes and finding new and delicious ways to use 
Knox Sparkling Gelatine. All sorts of the most delectable and 
tempting desserts and salads she concocted, and soups and 
meats, and candies and gravies and countless other dishes were 
made with Knox Sparkling Gelatine. Mrs. Knox has never 
been willing to pack her gelatine ready-sweetened or arti- 
cially flavored, because in its present form it combines so per- 
fectly with all foods. 

Several years ago, Mrs. Knox decided that, while large 
quantities of gelatine were being used, neither physicians nor 
dietitians knew much about its real health value. From her 
intimate knowledge of its elements, Mrs. Knox was certain 
that her gelatine had very great health properties. Accord- 
ingly, she instituted a most thorough scientific research which 

145 



extended over a period of two years at one of the country's 
great medical colleges. The results were so remarkable that a 
fellowship was established at the Mellon Institute, University 
of Pittsburgh, where so many other remarkable experiments 
have been made. 

In addition to discovering that gelatine dishes are highly 
beneficial in the dietary of patients suffering from tuberculosis, 
nephritis, gastritis, obesity, malnutrition, high blood-pressure, 
diabetes, fevers, rickets, scurvy and stomach disorders (a dis- 
covery of which physicians and hospitals are now making daily 
use), Dr. T. B. Downey, of the Mellon Institute, found some- 
thing that has practically revolutionized the problems of infant 
feeding. Dr. Downey found that i% of pure, unfiavored, 
unsweetened gelatine added to milk would largely prevent 
curd formation in the stomach, thus rendering the milk diges- 
tible and increasing the obtainable nourishment by about 23%. 
This discovery has made milk possible of digestion by even the 
most delicate stomachs and has been of untold benefit to 
infants, children and adults. 

The executive genius of Mrs. Knox which has guided the 
business since the death of Mr. Knox has made of it one of the 
country's notable industries. She designed and built the pres- 
ent plant in Johnstown, N. Y., which so fastidiously packs the 
pure gelatine received from the producing plant at Camden, 
N. J., where Knox Sparkling Gelatine is manufactured by 
automatic processes. Every known sanitary regulation is in 
effect, and the most rigid inspection throughout the plant and 
at all times insures the constant maintenance of its high stand- 
ards of purity and excellence. 

Over a quarter of a million stores in the United States alone 
handle Knox Sparkling Gelatine, and shipments are made 
regularly to England, Japan, Australia, India, South and 
Central America. With the recent scientific discoveries of 
the value of a plain, unflavored, unsweetened gelatine like 
Knox, and with the renewed interest in the proper foods for 
adults, as well as for children, Mrs. Knox is doubtless justi- 
fied in her belief that the gelatine business is as yet only in its 
infancy. 

146 




Cheese in Tins and Foils 

A Cheese IVithout Rind or fFaste, 
Blended to Uniformity of Quality and 
Flavor, That Has Jumped to Speedy 
Favor with the American Public 

Not so many years ago, less than 25, a retail grocery clerk, in 
the city of Buffalo, was cutting off a chunk of cheese on the 
old cheese-block for one of the store's customers. And again, 
as on previous occasions, he was forcibly reminded of the un- 
sanitary condition of this delicate food product as it lay there, 
exposed to dust and flies and other marketing abuses. The 
clerk's name was J. L. Kraft. And as he worked he thought, 
and one day conceived the idea of putting up cheese in a sani- 
tary package — not only to protect the cheese but also to elimi- 
nate the great waste and loss from cheese rinds, crumbling 
and "free lunchers." 

And it was with that idea and a far-reaching vision that 
this man set out with a tenacity of purpose and an apprecia- 
tion of the necessity of, and profit in, giving the public what 

147 



it wanted in the way of cheese — a clean, wholesome product. 

Soon after, with what little capital he was able to gather, 
Mr. Kraft had placed package cheese on the Bufifalo market. 
Believing there were greater possibilities for a start and for 
success in the city of Chicago, he determined to personally 
introduce the sale of this package cheese to the Chicago mar- 
ket. Failing to get much encouragement, and less capital, 
from those about him, he set out entirely on "his own," and 
arrived in Chicago in 1904 with but $65.00 in his pocket. He 
had little capital, but a big determination to get into the cheese 
business and work to the top. He secured a one-horse wagon 
and built up a cheese route, going from store to store, ped- 
dling his ware. Out of the profits or credit he managed to 
buv a second horse and wagon, but one horse died and one 
wagon was completely demolished in a crash. When he fig- 
ured up his balance sheet at the end of the first year's opera- 
tions he found himself $3,000 in debt. 

But he was not discouraged. He sought to analyze the 
causes of his failure and profit by his mistakes. With careful 
handling, hard work and a fixity of purpose, he gradually 
brought his business to a profitable basis, associating with 
him two of his brothers. Soft package cheese for the Chicago 
market was then his specialty. 

In 1909 the business was incorporated, and from that time 
on the company had a steady growth, opening up branches in 
Kansas City and Minneapolis, and acquiring new factories 
and adding new cheese products to the line. In 191 2 the 
company saw the need of an Eastern cheese house to round 
out its organization and opened a branch in New York City 
for the importing of cheese. 

It was two years later, in 1914, that Mr. Kraft, seeing the 
need and possibilities for a cheese that would withstand ex- 
tremes of temperatures, became interested in the develop- 
ment of a tinned cheese which could be shipped to all parts 
of the world without spoilage. He saw tremendous oppor- 
tunities in such a product, and much time and money were 
spent in experimenting and on investigational work, and in 
1916 the first Kraft Cheese in Tins was placed on the market. 

148 




Mr. J. L. Kraft, President 
Kraft Cheese Company 



This was a great step forward 
in the merchandising of cheese, 
for this new product could be 
shipped any- and everywhere — 
it was guaranteed to keep in- 
definitely. The demand for 
Kraft Cheese in Tins was de- 
veloped gradually, and when 
the war came on in 1917 the 
Government placed orders for 
millions of pounds of tinned 
cheese to be shipped to our 
army in France. The filling of 
these orders taxed the capacity 
of the Chicago plant to the ut- 
most and necessitated larger 
quarters. 
Each succeeding year brought extensions and enlarge- 
ments; established businesses were acquired; branches opened 
throughout the State of Wisconsin, the greatest source of sup- 
ply, and in 1920 the extensive business of the MacLaren 
Imperial Cheese Company of Montreal and Detroit was 
purchased. 

In that same year Kraft Cheese in Foil, packed in five- 
pound boxes, was placed on the market, and its success was 
so instant and phenomenal that it further revolutionized the 
merchandising of cheese, and today Kraft Cheese in five- 
pound boxes is universally known. Like Kraft Cheese in 
Tins, the five-pound loaf is without rind or waste of any sort 
— a pasteurized product, blended to obtain a uniformity of 
quality and flavor, a thing greatly lacking in ordinary types 
of cheese. 

Advertising always played a large part in the development 
of the Kraft Cheese Company, and with the growing busi- 
ness were increasing advertising funds. A large sales force 
is maintained by the Kraft Cheese Company in this country 
and in Canada, as well as in Europe, and Kraft Cheese is be- 
ing shipped into every civilized country in the world. And 

149 



today the man who first had the vision is planning and look- 
ing ahead to the time when the per capita consumption of 
cheese in the United States will be on a par with that of 
Europe. Mr. Kraft, as the founder of the business, has always 
been at the helm and today is president and general manager 
of a ten-million-dollar corporation. 

The Kraft Cheese Company maintains the largest labora- 
tory in the world, devoted exclusively to cheese research. It 
is here that the quality of all of the products is carefully 
watched and experiments of all kinds pertaining to the health 
value of cheese are conducted. 

Realizing that before long the present cheese districts of 
the United States will be unable to supply the cheese needed, 
Mr. Kraft, again looking ahead, is fostering the development 
of new dairying centers, and the big strides made in this direc- 
tion in the State of Idaho are largely attributable to his efforts 
and encouragement to the farmers of that State. It was for 
this reason that the Western factory of the Kraft Cheese Com- 
pany was located at Pocatello, Idaho. 



LSO 




The Preference for 
Premier 

Premier Salad Dressing Is One of the 
Youngest Brands of the Leggett Line, but 
in Fourteen Years Has Become One of the 
Most Popular Food Products in the Country 

Borrowed capital — and that only to the meager extent of 
about two thousand dollars — is not much of a business asset. 
But with that small sum, loaned by their father, and the con- 
viction that purity counts more than anything else in the man- 
ufacture and sale of food products, Francis H. Leggett and 
his younger brother, Theodore, decided to enter the New 
York food business a little more than 64 years ago. 

Throughout the entire period the stress on purity has been 
retained. Long before the enactment of the Federal Pure 
Food and Drugs Act, it led to the establishment of labora- 
tories, where all the products sold were tested before being 
marketed. 

The Premier brand was introduced with the opening of the 

151 



first Leggett store on Rcade Street, New York City, in 1861. 
\\^ithin three or four years it was found necessary to take over 
adjoining buildings. Twenty years later, a ten-story building 
was erected at West Broadway, Franklin and Varick Streets. 
Many astute business men of the time declared this new build- 
ing too far uptown and predictions of failure for the young 
firm were freely made. But the purity of Premier products 
and the growth of the city quickly ofifset the disadvantages of 
location, and the firm once more began to go ahead. 

The development was rapid. In 1902 the Leggetts were 
forced to obtain another ten-story building. By 1924 the 
company had absorbed three other large distributors, Koenig 
& Schuster, New York; C. E. Slauson Company, Stamford, 
Conn., and William A. B. Jurgens, Brooklyn. The combined 
company is one of the largest, if not the largest, food distribu- 
tors in the world. Many branches have been opened, and a 
thoroughly modern factory is now operated at Landisville, 
New Jersey. 

During this long period of progress, many new products 
had been added to the Premier line, which had, from the 
first, been among the standards of purity in canned and packed 
foods. But the most phenomenally successful of these prod- 
ucts was not sold until fourteen years ago. This product is 
Premier Salad Dressing. 

One of the first departments installed, as the business grew, 
was a laboratory for tests and experiments. Here, under 
supervision of skilled chemists, tests were made which were 
actually more rigid than those imposed by the Federal pure 
food laws, although those laws were not passed until years 
later. 

Many experiments ^^■ere made, too. Most of these were de- 
signed to perfect recipes first discovered by American house- 
wives, the same women who first cooked baked beans and 
apple pie. Premier Salad Dressing was the outcome of many 
such experiments, based on recipes used by the most skillful 
mistresses of American cookery. 

These women first saw the need of a salad dressing such as 
Premier, but it remained for the Leggett food chemists to 

152 



perfect a dressing which would most completely satisfy their 
needs. Experiment after experiment was made to secure a 
dressing which would have the proper consistency, the most 
distinctive flavor. 

Finally, Premier Salad Dressing was perfected and placed 
in the hands of a few women in different parts of the country. 
That was the beginning of its growth. The women who were 
first to use it introduced it to their friends and their friends' 
friends. 

It came at an advantageous time. Salads were beginning 
to find favor throughout the country, and Premier Salad 
Dressing gave them greater impetus. Within a few years, the 
salad, once a rarity or a simple combination of lettuce and 
tomatoes, found universal favor and became a thing of beauty 
and infinite variety. 

During this period new uses were constantly discovered for 
Premier Salad Dressing, most of them by women who liked 
the unusual flavor and wished to extend it beyond the realm 
of salads. Many of these women wrote letters to the Leggett 
Company, telling of the new ways in which they had used the 
dressing. All these women seemed to have one central idea: 
"if they had found so many ways to improve their cooking 
with Premier Salad Dressing, why shouldn't they give the 
value of their knowledge to women all through the country?" 

To put this idea into effect, the Leggett Company began 
advertising the many uses of Premier Salad Dressing, and its 
popularity grew at a still faster rate. All during this growth 
the same high standards of purity were maintained. Besides 
that, the continual use of improved methods and machinery 
made possible constant reductions in prices. 

Premier Salad Dressing is now considered the most popular 
dressing in America, and is sold in almost every country on 
earth, being distributed by agents in far India and Japan, in 
sunny Spain and somewhat in merry England. Five branches 
of the company have been opened in the United States. An- 
other branch is as far as Bordeaux, France, from the little 
Reade Street store, where, only 64 years ago, the business 
began. 

153 




Not So Simple, the 
Canning Business 

The Canni7jg BusinesSj Which, L,ike 
Libby's, Markets Its Products All Over 
the IVorldy Has Many Problems — From 
the Choice of Seed for Fruit to the Pur- 
chase of Tin- PI ate Long Before the Season 

The rapid growth of the canning industry in the last few 
years gives it the appearance of a recent industry. However, 
the original investigations and patents for the processing of 
canned foods date back to 1795. For more than a hundred 
years there have been experiments, disappointments and 
eventually the development of successful processes which have 
hnally made possible the growth of this industry. 

In 1868 Libby, McNeill & Libby began the canning of 
meats. The business was not large, and it was necessary to 

154 



develop not only the best processes so far as the cooking of 
the meats was concerned, but the production of a can which 
would protect these meats satisfactorily and at the same time 
make meat canning practical on a commercial basis. The 
invention of the right type of can itself was one of the great- 
est developments which had occurred up to that time. 

Corned beef was the first product to be canned and later 
tongue, ham and other products were added. 

To convince the public that these products were whole- 
some was a task for years of effort. Some of the early adver- 
tising efforts appear ludicrous now. For example, in 1877 
colored cards were distributed picturing scenes from some of 
Shakespeare's plays, which were then much in vogue. One 
of them shows Macbeth with a can of Libby's Corned Beef 
under each arm. He is reported to be saying: 

"I have done the deed. The man was fearless, strong and 
brave, but by my might I did overpower him and capture 
these cans of Libby, McNeill & Libby's Cooked Corned 
Beef." 

Eventually this company developed the packaging of other 
perishable food products. In 1906 some pickle and condi- 
ment lines were packed in cans and bottles. In 1907 plants 
were built in which condensed and evaporated milk, Califor- 
nia fruit and California asparagus were packed. In 1910 
pineapple was added, and in 1912 salmon. 

None but those who are old in the business can appreciate 
the many early difficulties which had to be overcome to bring 
the processes to a state of perfection. The development of 
pineapple canning alone is a most dramatic story and was 
perfected only over a long period of years. Each product 
brought its own problems, which had to be solved. 

The average person takes distribution for granted. It sees 
none of the difficulties which manufacturers and distributors 
must meet and overcome in getting their products to con- 
sumers on a profitable basis. The fact is quite commonly 
overlooked that farmers who grow these products must be 
supplied with well-selected seed and that their production 
must be contracted for at a price, in some cases even before 

155 



the seed is planted; that tinplate and sugar must be purchased 
in great quantities months prior to the canning season. 

It is not generally recognized, for example, that the greater 
part of mincemeat produced is sold within a short space of 
time prior to the holidays, while some other products are 
packed and consumed every day in the year. Between these 
two extremes are all sorts of seasonal variations. 

One can sell quantities of apple butter in Pennsylvania, but 
practically none in New England. The evaporated milk sold 
in England must be packed under different specifications than 
that sold in the United States. Labels must be printed in the 
language of the country in which the products are sold. 

It is the work of years to develop successful processes of 
manufacturing and distribution which enable a company like 
this to grow big. 

Today Libby products are distributed not only in every 
city and hamlet of the United States, but in every country of 
the world. 



S6 




Spreading "Sunshine" 
Everywhere 

The Story of the Educational Advertising 
Campaign That Is Inspiring the American 
Housewife to a New Understanding of the 
Place of Biscuits in Her Food Program — of 
the 300 Sunshine Varieties in Particular 

After varied experience in farming and as retail merchants, 
Jacob L. Loose and Joseph S. Loose started in the baking 
and confectionery business in 1882. John H. Wiles entered 
the baking and confectionery business in 1883. These men 
were the founders of the Loose-Wiles Biscuit Company, 
which was organized in 1902. 

The first "Thousand Window" Sunshine Bakery was built 
in Kansas City, Mo. As the business developed, other bak- 
eries were constructed to take care of the increasing demand 
for Sunshine Biscuits. In 1914 the latest and largest Sunshine 
Bakery was completed at Long Island City, N. Y., repre- 
senting a present value of more than $6,500,000. Now there 

157 



are bakeries in the following cities: New York (Long Island 
City), Kansas City, Boston, Chicago, St. Louis, Minneapo- 
lis, Dallas and Omaha. 

The daily output of these bakeries is distributed through 
more than loo branch offices, located in principal cities of 
the United States. 

The development of biscuit baking has been one of the out- 
standing industrial accomplishments of the past quarter cen- 
tury. From the first, Loose-Wiles Biscuit Company has done 
its share of the pioneering necessary to effect the outstanding 
improvements which have resulted in a remarkable increase 
in biscuit consumption in this country. 

Loose-\\'iles Biscuit Company was the first to go abroad 
and make a study of the methods and styles of the so-called 
''hard sweets" of the English style biscuits. They were the 
first to purchase and employ European machinery for em- 
bossing cookies and wafers. 

The founders of this company originated the practice of 
placing ovens on the top floor, so as to manufacture under most 
sanitary and efficient conditions. In Sunshine Bakeries, all 
ovens are on the top floor, built of w^hite tile and placed so as to 
receive the maximum daylight available. 

This company was first to develop variety among "Sugar 
Wafers." 

This company was the first to use the slanting shelf metal 
display rack, which has displaced the old-time horizontal 
shelf display fixture. This slanting shelf rack, together with 
the hinged glass display covers, tips the can toward the cus- 
tomer and afifords her a clear view of the contents of the can. 
The former type of "brass front" can allowed only a meager 
view of a few biscuits, which might or might not be visible 
through the small "window" on the side. 

This company was first to develop a better, smaller and 
salted soda cracker, now known as "Sunshine Krispy 
Crackers." 

Advertising occupies a prominent place in the picture of 
this company's development. 

For several years Loose-Wiles Biscuit Company advertised 

158 




Mr. B. L. Hul^p. President 
Loosc-lVilcs Biscuit Co. 



to popularize Sunshine Biscuits 
and establish its trade mark 
and trade names with the pub- 
lic. In short, the company's 
first advertising was planned to 
sell the public on the idea that 
Sunshine Biscuits were better 
than any other brand. 

This advertising was success- 
ful. The company continued to 
srow. Sunshine Biscuits sold in 
steadily increasing quantities. 

Then this company became 
impressed with the significance 
of certain figures. In England 
the annual average per capita 
consumption of biscuits was $30.00 per family of five, and in 
Continental Europe about $15.00. The average American 
family used only a very few dollars' worth of biscuits per 
year. 

Part of this difference was accounted for by the different 
living habits of the nations. But in view of so large a dis- 
crepancy it seemed the opportune time to wage a widespread 
campaign to educate the American people to eat more bis- 
cuits and in this way broaden the market for the entire bis- 
cuit industry. 

Having proved its worth, this campaign is still in progress. 
The outward appearance of the copy and angles of copy ap- 
peals have been varied to prevent monotony and gain the at- 
tention and interest of the housewife. But always the same 
idea is behind the Sunshine advertising policy — to tell the 
housewife that she can buy from her grocer fresh, pure, 
dainty biscuits, made in more than 300 varieties to suit every 
food occasion. 



159 




Thank a Sick Sailor 

The Minute Tapioca Company ^ Which Today 
Furnishes Sustenance and Pleasure to Millions^ 
Owes Its Be^innin^ to the Solicitude of a 
Kindly Landlady for a Sick Sailor Boarder 

A sick sailor, a kindly landlady, and the present Minute 
Tapioca Company. Indeed, a strange combination! And it 
is a long jump of thirty years from this sailor lad to the model 
food plant at Orange, Massachusetts, where Minute Tapioca 
is made today. 

A sailor who had cruised all over the world became ill in 
Boston. While convalescing, his landlady said she would 
make and serve a pudding made from tapioca. "Fine," replied 
the sailor, "but if you want to make a better tapioca pudding 
than you have ever made before, just run those tapioca flakes 
through a coffee grinder, and both you and I will like the 
pudding a whole lot better." 

The Tapioca flakes were ground in the coffee grinder. 

160 



The pudding was served — much to the delight of the sailor 
and the gracious landlady, whose name was Susan L. Stavers. 

Early in 1894, ^^^- J- S. Whitman, the originator of the 
present Minute Tapioca Company, seeing the possibilities in 
ground flake tapioca hired one house-to-house canvasser to 
introduce and sell "Tapioca Superlative" to the housewives 
of Millers Falls, Massachusetts. This canvasser felt that the 
day was a grand success when he sold 8 or to of these pound 
sacks in one day. Gradually the interest in this food grew, 
and several more canvassers were added to the tiny ofiice pav 
roll. While going direct to housewives brought excellent 
results, this method of selling did not begin to keep pace with 
the rapidly increasing demand. Sales and manufacturing 
expansion could not be accomplished by an individual. Since 
it was necessary to bring in additional funds from the outside, 
Mr. Whitman formed in September, 1894, The Whitman 
Grocery Company. This company was capitalized at the 
huge sum of thirty thousand dollars, and bought the right to 
manufacture and sell "Tapioca Superlative." 

1895 ^"^^s a most eventful year, as it marked the first associa- 
tion of Mr. Frank S. Ewing (the present President of Minute 
Tapioca Company) with the nation's tapioca business. The 
present large volume of sales and the excellent reputation 
which this company enjoys today among brokers, wholesalers, 
retailers, and the public are due in large measure to the safe 
guiding hand and the progressive policies of Mr. Ewing. 

In 1906, Mr. Eben E. Gridley (the present Treasurer and 
General Manager) joined The Whitman Grocery Company. 
In 1908, the firm name was changed to Minute Tapioca 
Company. 

In its earlier days, Minute Tapioca had to fight to establish 
itself in the place of old fashioned pearl tapioca. Today, this 
is quite changed. Thanks to a consistent and ever-expanding 
advertising policy, quick-cooking Minute Tapioca no longer 
depends for its sales expansion on winning over users of pearl 
tapioca to Minute. 

Millions of attractive and educational advertisements have 
taught and are still teaching American housewives the advan- 

161 




Mr. Prank S. Having, Prcsidoit 
Mi)iiitc 'fafioca C(>in[^any 



tages of Minute Tapioca as a 
healthful, appetizing and eco- 
nomical food. Minute Tapioca 
is by no means confined to the 
making of "Appul Tapioca'' or 
''Tapioca Puddin'," but adds 
variety to the daily menu in 
soups, casserole dishes, entrees, 
desserts and so forth. Tt is an 
ideal "extender" for left-over 
meat and fish; is great for ab- 
sorbing the excess juices of 
berry, apple or rhubarb pies. 
Minute Tapioca is one of the 
most easily digested carbohy- 
drate foods, and is invaluable 
for baby, child and invalid feeding. 

The hundreds of thousands of Minute Cook Books issued 
each year are a much sought practical aid to housewives in 
the making and serving of properly balanced meals. 

The story of Minute Tapioca has well been called "A 
Romance of 12,000 Miles Across Seven Seas." In far ofif 
Java grows the cassava plant, from the roots of which Minute 
Tapioca is made. This plant grows from 4 to 10 feet high 
and the roots or tubers closely resemble sweet potatoes, 
although larger, some weighing as much as from twenty to 
thirty pounds. The cassava roots are washed and re-washed. 
They are then ground and screened to separate the tapioca 
from the root fiber. The tapioca passes into storage tanks, 
where it is washed free from all impurities. 

The insoluble tapioca settles to the bottom and the water is 
drawn off. The tapioca is then removed, dried, and in the 
form of fine fiour is bagged for shipment by steamer on its 
long journey across seven seas to Orange, Massachusetts. 

In Orange, the tapioca flour is bolted through silk cloth to 
remove any particles of fiber, then blended and kneaded into 
a dough by an automatic mixer, which prepares it for the 
actual cooking in steam jacketed cookers. 

162 



While the tapioca is being cooked by high pressure steam 
heat, it is constantly stirred by powerful automatic paddles. 
After cooking, the tapioca is dried, granulated, tested and 
packaged. 

You and your friends are cordially invited to make a real 
visit to Orange and inspect the largest tapioca factory in the 
world, where both Minute Tapioca and Minute Gelatine are 
made. You will see Model Cooking, Drying and Packing 
Departments where scrupulous cleanliness prevails, and 
Minute Tapioca is prepared for the housewives' tables with- 
out being touched by human hands. You will also see a 
Model Chemical Laboratory, where samples of Minute 
Tapioca are tested chemically and microscopically every hour. 

You will also enjoy visiting the ''Ranch" and the "Birch- 
land Club," where Minute employees and their families have 
a garden spot in which they may rest and play. Do this and 
you will get first hand the complete story of Minute Tapioca 
and the folks whose years have been spent in preparing Minute 
Tapioca for the housewives of America. 



163 




Founded: 1809 

The Story of One of the Oldest Firms in 
American Business, JJ'^hich Today, 116 Years 
After Its Founding, Is Still Owned and 
Managed JJ^ithin the Family of Its Founder 



Ix 1809 David Williams established this business on Green- 
wich Street near Barclay, New York. Enoch Morgan, hav- 
ing married a daughter of the founder, succeeded to the busi- 
ness in 1834. Five years later the premises were extended by 
acquisition of the adjoining property at 211 Washington 
Street, and in 1844 a new factory was built at Bank and West 
Streets, on which site the business is still conducted. With 
these additional factory facilities the business was extended 
throughout the United States and abroad, where the various 
brands of soap earned wide popularity. 

On the death of Enoch Morgan, in 1 853, his eldest son, John 
Williams Morgan, then nineteen years old, assumed charge of 
the business under the Executors of the Estate of Enoch Mor- 
gan. He bought the business when he attained the age of 
twenty-one and afterwards took into partnership his brothers, 

164 



William Henry and George Frederick Morgan, under the 
name of Enoch Morgan's Sons. 

The business had been running sixty years when in 1869 its 
best-known product, Sapolio, was put on the market. 

Present advertising methods were as unknown in those days 
as scouring soap, and the owners of Sapolio had the difficult 
task of venturing as pioneers into an unknown field. Progress 
was sure but necessarily slow and many novel advertising 
features and methods were tried before Sapolio attained its 
success. 

One of the best-known features was Captain Andrews' voy- 
age of 1892. Single-handed he piloted his fourteen-foot sloop 
"Sapolio" from Atlantic City to Spain to repay the visit made 
by Columbus to these shores 400 years before. A few years 
later the Spotless Town trademark was spread broadcast 
throughout the land, adding to the fame of Sapolio and mak- 
ing it a household word. 

In 1876 the business was incorporated under the name of 
Enoch Morgan's Sons Company, but has remained in the 
hands of the same family. John Williams Morgan was Presi- 
dent until his death, in 1881. George Frederick Morgan, his 
brother, was elected President in 1882, and retained the active 
management of the Company until his death, in 1925. He had 
been in the business over sixty years. He was succeeded by 
his son, John Williams Morgan, who is therefore a great- 
grandson of David Williams, the founder of the business. 



IbS 




Name a Biscuit! 

It fVould Be Uneeda, Almost to a Certainty^ 
the Most Famous Biscuit in thePForld — but 
Only One of a Long Line Produced by the 
Iforld-Famed National Biscuit Coinpany 

Natiuxal Biscuit Compaxv, bakers of Uneeda Biscuit and 
over three hundred other varieties, was formed in 1898 by the 
consolidation of most of the principal cracker baking plants 
of the country, the principal corporations merged being the 
New York Biscuit Company, the U. S. Baking Company and 
the American Biscuit and Manufacturing Company, all of 
which were in themselves combinations of baking plants that 
had been arranged a few years before. Hence it is readily 
apparent that National Biscuit Company was at its birth a 
great enterprise, the bakeries of which dotted the country 
practically from coast to coast. This great collection of plants, 
however, lacked co-ordination, and it remained for National 

166 



Biscuit Company to co-ordinate them and make them work as 
a synchronized unit. 

Upon delving into its details this task took on herculean 
proportions. Nearly all of the plants were local bakeries 
whose former owners had been retained as managers, and each 
had its specialties and its idiosyncrasies. Many of them pro- 
duced crackers of the same kind and quality, but they were 
marketed under a variety of names, in a multitude of ways and 
by myriad methods. The good-will that the Company started 
with was of local rather than national character because of 
the conditions cited. 

What was to be done with all these conflicting brands and 
trade marks; what attitude was to be taken about this valuable 
asset of local good-will? The men who were the leaders in 
organizing the Company realized that they were face to face 
with a stupendous problem, but they tackled it with rare cour- 
age and made the decision that they would make the Company 
a national institution worthy of its name. Looking ever to its 
ultimate good rather than to the momentary expedient and 
profit, they decided that they would produce products of high 
merit; that they would give them new names and create a 
demand for them throughout the length and breadth of the 
land. The decision made, the question of how to carry out 
that policy asserted itself. Up to this time crackers had been 
sold to dealers in barrels and boxes in great quantities. When 
the box or barrel was opened, the crackers quickly lost their 
freshness due to the contact and influence of air, moisture, dirt, 
dust and odors various and sundry. 

The progressive sponsors of the Company conceived the 
idea of the package as a solution to both problems — something 
around which to create a good-will on a nation-wide scale and 
to get the goods to the consumer in small units with full pro- 
tection for the biscuit during the process. Biscuit in packages 
to retail at popular prices! Of course, to us today the thing 
is commonplace and very much matter of fact, but twenty-six 
years ago the idea was considered revolutionary and the gen- 
eral attitude was that "It can't be done." Practical bakers 
ridiculed the idea and freely predicted it would result in a 

167 



worse smash-up than when an irrcsistihle force strikes an 
immovable body. 

After many weeks of experimental work, the best soda 
cracker that couKl be baked was originated to head the line of 
package products. During the time given up to experimental 
work, there had also been conducted a search for a name in 
keeping with the new package idea, culminating in the selec- 
tion, from numerous suggestions, of the celebrated name, 
"Uneeda Biscuit." 

An advertising campaign to familiarize people with the 
new cracker and the new idea was determined upon. The 
first advertising appeared in Chicago, being teaser copy in the 
newspapers and on the billboards, and this advertising gradu- 
ally extended to other sections. The new idea and the new 
product went across the country like thunder rolling over 
mountains. It literally took the country by storm. The 
demand for Uneeda Biscuit ran far ahead of supply, and the 
Company was flooded with a rush of orders. The new cracker 
seemed to be just the thing that the country had been waiting 
for. The results so far exceeded the expectations of the spon- 
sors of the idea that it efifectively silenced all opposition. It 
was perceived that Uneeda Biscuit and other specialties would 
have to be baked in bakeries of special design with machinery 
of the highest and most modern type. The result of this is 
summed up in its modern marvels of baking utility that the 
Company operates today. 

During the past few years another outstanding advancement 
in the packing and merchandising of bulk biscuit has taken 
place. For years the familiar glass front tin cans had been 
used for this purpose. There were some faults in this con- 
tainer, so National Biscuit Company specialists started re- 
search work to perfect a single service non-returnable pack- 
age. The result was the development of the cardboard Q 
made in the Company's own carton factory in Marseilles, 111. 

The Q is the best container for both the Company and the 
dealers. The biscuits hold up better— keep fresh and crisp 
for a longer period in the Q than in tin cans. This alone is 
reason enough for its universal use. 

16S 




Of the Cup That Cheers 

Coffee Co7isumptioii in the United States 
Reached in 1923 the Imp7^essive Total of Thir- 
teen Pounds pe?^ Capita — an End to Which the 
Publicity Campaign of the National Coffee 
Roasters' Association Contributed No Little 



How the coffee trade of the United States has waged a re- 
markably successful consumer advertising campaign to popu- 
larize its product forms an interesting story of the successful 
way in which association advertising has developed in this 
country in the last few years. 

For a great many years coffee has been made a target for 
quite a variety of marksmen, and the coffee trade came to the 
decision that the public must be told the truth about coffee 
once for all. 

Simultaneously with this decision came a realization that 
the per capita cc^nsumption of coffee in the United States was 

169 



materially below the record of other nations and therefore 
an excellent opportunity existed for expansion in the trade. 
These two reasons for an advertising campaign were sufficient 
to bring the trade together in a real, determined effort. 

It was immediately apparent that it would be too much of a 
burden for tlie distributors of a food staple alone to shoulder; 
a food staple on which fierce competition held margins within 
a very narrow limit. It also became clear that the work we 
had in mind would benefit all other elements of the coffee 
trade as much, or more than, the roaster, especially the pro- 
ducer, and that in all justice these other elements should join 
in the support of the work. Accordingly, we concluded to 
invite the co-operation of all factors. It was logical to ap- 
proach the producers first. 

Brazil furnishes 70% of all the coffee consumed in the 
United States. The biggest part of this is raised in the one 
State, Sao Paulo, and moves from plantation to market over 
one railroad. The planters secured a state tax on all coffee 
which was shipped over this railroad. By the simple expe- 
dient of including the tax in the railroad freight bill, every 
bag of coffee arriving at Santos contributes a uniform share 
to the coffee advertising in the United States. This tax in- 
cludes every bag, regardless of destination, thus including 
coffee sent to all other parts of the world. 

In this country the Joint Coffee Trade Publicity Commit- 
tee was organized, consisting of five representative coffee 
men, three chosen by the National Coffee Roasters Associa- 
tion and two by the New York Coffee and Sugar Exchange. 
Thus responsibility and management were concentrated in a 
few, one man in Brazil and five men here, a feature which 
has had much to do with success. Thus, also, both important 
branches of the industry in this country were united and 
represented. 

Between these two organizations an agreement was reached 
confining the use of Brazilian funds to the purchase of space 
in magazines, trade papers and newspapers. An auxiliary 
fund, to be provided by the various coffee interests of the 
United States, was used to cover administrative and inciden- 

170 



tal expenses and such other advertising as might be needed 
to make up a well-rounded campaign. 

It was soon found that no thorough investigation of cofifee 
had ever been made. Partial investigations were on record. 
Not even a thorough examination of the bibliography of cof- 
fee had ever been attempted. There was nothing absolutely 
authoritative. We, therefore, entered into an agreement with 
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for a thorough 
research. This required more than three years, and it has 
proved very satisfactory in every way. 

In addition to several campaigns containing plain, straight- 
talk copy of a positive nature on the appeal of coffee to all 
people, its place in history, its increasing use, etc., there have 
been several campaigns in which the results of the research 
work were a feature. These were perhaps the most effective 
of all, since we have discovered a keen interest on the part of 
the public in learning the truth about cofifee. In addition to 
these campaigns, which appeared in both magazines and 
newspapers, cofifee advertising appeared in medical, educa- 
tional and drug-store, soda-fountain and trade publications. 
Grocers received monthly a four-page news sheet of the house 
organ type, motion picture films were made for distribution 
through non-theatrical circles, educational exhibits for use 
in the school room were prepared and numerous pamphlets 
and booklets published for distribution through the trade, 
thus merchandising the campaign. 

As for results, these are difficult of measurement in any ad- 
vertising. Co-operative advertising of this nature is perhaps 
even more difficult to measure exactly. We know, however, 
that cofifee consumption during 1923 reached its highest point 
on record — thirteen pounds per capita. We know that public 
interest in cofifee is greater than ever, because no other food 
product is receiving as much mention in the public press as 
coflee, and the press is a pretty good barometer of public in- 
terest. We know that the public has been made cofifee con- 
scious as never before, and we also know that the public atti- 
tude to cofifee is today most friendly and favorable. These 
are worth-while results. 

171 




They Pioneered with 
White Soap 

If ^ hen Feet Brothei^s , 28 Years A^o, 
Conceived the Idea of a White Soap, It 
Was Necessary to Ingratiate It Tact- 
fully with Their Customers. But Today 
They Do a Great If orld-lfide Business 

Ix 1872, when the three Peet brothers came to Kansas City 
from Cleveland, Ohio, in search of their fortune, they found 
a very small but thriving village, which seemed to them had 
possibilities for large development. These young men had 
a total capital of eight hundred dollars, with which thev deter- 
mined to engage in the soap manufacturing business. They 
located a small frame building on the banks of the Missouri 
River, \Nhich then formed the principal means of commercial 

172 



contact with the East, and in this room they established their 
factory and office. There were no employees, all of the buy- 
ing, manufacturing, selling and collecting was done by the 
three brothers. They manufactured their product in an iron 
kettle which had a capacity of about ten thousand pounds, and 
the soap was stirred by hand and cooked over a stove. In con- 
trast to this, the Peet Brothers' Kansas City factory of today 
operates twenty-six kettles, each having a capacity of four 
hundred thousand pounds, and each kettle extending from 
the basement to the third floor of one of the factory buildings. 

In 1890 the firm built what was then considered quite a 
modern soap factory in Kansas City and gradually extended 
their field of operations so as to absorb their total production 
of some two thousand cases of soap per day. 

In those days brown or yellow soap predominated all over 
the country, and this was made entirely from animal fats and 
rosin, the latter accounting for the color of the soap. In 1897 
Peet Brothers Company conceived the idea of manufacturing 
a white laundry soap which would contain no animal fats, 
and instead only vegetable oils, consisting the most part of 
cotton seed oil and cocoanut oil. The firm did not have suffi- 
cient capital to advertise the product; they placed one bar 
of Crystal White in each box of one hundred bars of yellow 
soap which was shipped to their trade. In the course of time 
the objections to this became so few that the company started 
placing two bars of Crystal White in each box; gradually the 
amount was increased until there had been created a suffi- 
cient demand for this new white soap to justify marketing it 
under its own name. This soap was in a large measure respon- 
sible for the success of Peet Brothers, and the demand for 
Crystal White has grown from year to year until now it re- 
quires two large factories, with a capacity of nearly two mil- 
lion bars per day, to supply their customers. 

In 1910 the firm's only factory, located in Kansas City, 
burned to the ground with an enormous loss, which wiped 
out the entire surplus of the company which had been ac- 
cumulated over a period of thirty-eight years. A still greater 
loss faced the company in that they apparently would be un- 

173 



able to keep their brands, on which hundreds of thousands 
of dollars had been expended for advertising, on the market; 
also because of the probability of losing their organization. 
It was characteristic of Mr. William Peet that a tract of 
ground for a new factory was purchased before the embers 
in the old building had become cold, and plans were made 
for building a new and larger factory immediately. Also, it 
was arranged to keep the entire selling organization by pay- 
ing them a substantial part of their salary, even while idle. 
The first year of operation in the new factory produced a 
larger volume of business than had ever been done before. 

In 19 16 the company built a large modern soap factory in 
Berkeley, California, to take care of the business which had 
been developed west of the Rocky Mountains, and this fac- 
tory has been running to capacity ever since the first day it 
opened and there have been several additions made which has 
greatly increased their production capacity. Through this 
factory a large export business has been developed. 

While the company had been engaged in the toilet soap 
business for a good many years in a modest way, no great 
progress had been made in this particular line until 1915, 
when Creme Oil Toilet Soap was placed upon the market. 
This brand was manufactured from olive, cocoanut and palm 
kernel oils, and has now developed into one of the largest sell- 
ing brands of toilet soap in this country. 

The resources of the world are drawn upon to supply the 
requirements of the Peet Brothers Company, cocoanut oil, 
for instance, being imported from the Philippine Islands, 
India and Java and other South Sea islands. Olive oil is 
received from Spain and Italy, palm kernel oil from remote 
Africa and cotton seed oil from the mills of Oklahoma, Texas, 
Arkansas and other cotton-raising States. 

Mr. William Peet, the only surviving member of the origi- 
nal partnership, is now inactive, and the business has been 
managed for the last ten years by his son, Mr. Albert W. Peet, 
who has displayed all the business acumen of his father, and 
under whose leadership the business has grown and prospered 
more rapidly than at any time in the history of the company. 

174 



^^^^1^^^^^ 


p3KKW^^ 




^^^^^BBBPI^VHPHHII^Hh^i «^H 


■ '^ 









A Failure That Panned 
Out Well 

Forty Years Ago Louis Latzer ^^Bought 
Into'' an Enterprise Sold Him IVith 
an Unperfected Process, but Learned 
in the Laboratory How to Perfect It 
Himself— and Built a Great Business 

In 1885 a man brought to Highland, Illinois, an idea of put- 
ting milk in cans and sterilizing it so that it would keep in- 
definitely. He professed to know how to make the product. 

Louis Latzer, a farmer, thirty-seven years of age, invested 
two hundred dollars in the company that was organized. He 
made the investment because he hoped the new enterprise 
would make a better market for the milk produced by the 
farmers in the community. At the end of the first year the 
new company was on the point of failure. The promoter 
had demonstrated the fact that his process was not perfected. 

The young farmer who had put in two hundred dollars and 
had been elected to the board of directors to represent the 
interest of other farmers who had invested did not want to 

175 




Mr. I.miis I.al.zcr 
1-ouiuh-r of Vet Milk 



see the proposition fail. He 
went into the phmt to see what 
was the matter. His first dis- 
covery was that he needed to 
know something about chem- 
istry. He employed as his tutor 
a doctor who had some chem- 
ical education, fitted up a lab- 
oratory and became a student. 
Applying from day to day in 
the plant the things he learned 
in the laboratory, he succeeded 
in perfecting the process, took 
charge of the little plant, be- 
came president of the company 
and started a new industry. 

When Louis Latzer left the work of his farm to solve the 
problem of making evaporated milk, practically all the work 
of the plant had to be done bv hand labor, even to making 
the cans. When he died, in 1924, practically every stage of 
the work in such plants was done by automatic machinery. 

When he began the one little plant made only a few cases 
of milk a day. When his work was finished his company had 
seventeen large plants, from Maryland to Colorado. 

When Louis Latzer began making evaporated milk there 
was no demand for it and no organization for its distribution. 
He lived to see millions of cases sold each year by grocers in 
every city, town and village in the United States. He saw 
the article which he first produced go by hundreds of thou- 
sands of cases to save the lives of thousands of children in 
starving Belgium; by millions of cases to feed the armies en- 
gaged in the World War. 

The story of Pet Milk is one of tlie romances of modern 
business. Like all such stories, it has behind it the story of 
a man who had the eye for opportunity and the will to serve 
and the ability to direct the work of others — without which 
the great development of American business could not have 
been accomplished. 

176 




The Popularizing of 

Phenix 

Phenix Cheeses — in Which Is Included the 
Popular Philadelphia Cream Cheese — Are 
Known and Liked From Coast to Coast. 
Here Is the Dramatic Story of Their Growth 

The beginning of the Phenix Cheese Corporation goes back 
forty-five years to the time when Philadelphia Cream Cheese 
first appeared on the market. At that time, a group of pro- 
ducers were already manufacturing fine cheese of the familiar 
American type in the lovely Unadilla Valley, which is con- 
sidered the best dairying section in New York State. One of 
New York's most exclusive grocers requested them to make 
for him a new cheese delicacy. It was named "Philadelphia 
Cream Cheese" and became an immediate success. Today 
Philadelphia Cream Cheese is a household word. It is the 

177 



largest selling packaged cheese in the world, its high quality 
having always enabled it to maintain leadership. 

On this early foundation of success and prestige, the Phenix 
Cheese Company was organized in 1901. The Company 
gradually made additional varieties of cheese in an increasing 
number of factories. It now has completely organized plants 
for the manufacture of cheese in South Edmeston, New York, 
Beaver Dam and Plymouth, Wisconsin, and in other dairying 
sections, as well as New York City and Chicago. Recently 
additional manufacturing plants have been opened in San 
Francisco and Montreal, the latter to take care of the rapidly 
growing export trade, as well as furnishing cheese for domes- 
tic demand. Branches and distributing points are located in 
all large centers of population. 

Early in 1921, the Phenix Cheese Company, marketed in 
the form of 5-lb. loaves, the popular staple types of cheese in 
varieties, such as American, Pimiento, Swiss and Brick. For 
the first time, cheese of the familiar type stepped into the class 
of fine groceries. 

The next step in production of cheese of this kind followed 
early in 1925 — the packaging of loaf cheese in foil in neat 
3/2-lb. boxes like print butter. This immediately appealed to 
fastidious housewives, and has proven especially popular. Its 
monthly production exceeds 1,500,000 packages. 

Through its constantly expanding facilities, its wide variety 
of both packaged and bulk cheese, and progressive policies, 
the Phenix Cheese Corporation has attained its high place in 
the field of fine food products. 

Among its various packaged cheeses — the largest variety in 
the w(jrld produced by a single manufacturer — are numbered 
in addition to Philadelphia Cream Cheese and Phenix loaf 
cheese. Castle Camembert, packaged Limburger, Roquefort 
Portions and Tasty Rolls, Cheese in Tins, all bearing the 
famous Phenix trade-mark. 

In addition to its own output of cheese, the Company does a 
large importing business on all types of fine foreign cheeses. 



178 




"Pillsbury's Best" 

A Phrase That Might Be Com trued as 
Possessive or Assertive, but ff^hich Has 
Helped Build for a Product a Distinc- 
tion and Prestige of Mammoth Extent 

The story of the Pillsbury Flour Mills Company, at the pres- 
ent time one of the largest flour milling companies in the 
world, reverts back for its origin to the year 1870. 

Half a century of continuous and successful operation is 
not the common experience of many American business en- 
terprises, and therefore the story of the rise of the Pillsbury 
Flour Mills Company to a foremost position in the flour mill- 
ing industry and a glimpse at the personalities responsible for 
the company's growth makes it one of the most interesting of 
modern business romances. 

In 1869, only two years after the granting of the Minneapo- 
lis city charter, Mr. Charles A. Pillsbury, one of a family of 
two boys, pioneered his way from New England to the west- 

179 



ern frontier to what was then the village of St. Anthony, 
located at the falls bearing that name. 

It was about this time that Minneapolis was gaining recog- 
nition as a milling center from fine water power anei prox- 
imity to the then virgin wheat fields of Minnesota. 

Rochester, New York, in these early years, was the first 
rtour city of the country, followed closely by St. Louis and 
Minneapolis. However, at a very early date Minneapolis 
equaled and surpassed Rochester and became the leading flour 
manufacturing city of the world. 

Mr. Charles A. Pillsbury came West at the suggestion of 
his uncle, the Honorable John S. Pillsbury, primarily to en- 
gage in flour manufacturing, and wisely settled in the village 
of St. Anthony, which is now part of the city of Minneapolis. 

He made his first start with the purchase of a small 150- 
barrel mill. It was at this time that the world-famous trade 
brand, '"Pillsbury's Best,'' was adopted. It has been used 
continuously during the company's existence. 

Fortune favored the new enterprise, and in 1870, one year 
later, John S. Pillsbury, three times Governor of Minnesota; 
Charles A. Pillsbury and his father, George A. Pillsbury, 
organized C. A. Pillsbury & Company. 

However, in the early pioneer days Minnesota wheat was 
a hard spring wheat and the flour made from it was at a 
serious disadvantage in Eastern markets, compared with the 
softer and whiter winter wheat flours from the South Cen- 
tral States. It was not until the advent of the purifier which 
was first introduced in Minnesota, shortly after the organiza- 
tion of C. A. Pillsbury & Company, that the new enterprise 
began to make real progress. This fact, accompanied by the 
introduction of the Hungarian gradual reductions system, 
about the year 1870, was responsible for the progress made 
bv the Pillsbury Flour Mills Company. 

In 1875 the original little mill by the falls formed the nu- 
cleus for a larger group, the company having added the Pills- 
bury Anchor and Empire Mills. 

Success followed upon success, and in order to take care of 
the increased demands the Pillsbury "A" mill was built in 

180 



1 88 1. Built for a 5,000-barrel mill at a time when a 500- 
barrel mill was considered large, it attracted much attention. 
Since its erection in 1881 up to the present time it has enjoyed 
the distinction of being the world's largest flour mill. Of 
course, with the changing conditions and the expansion of the 
company, the original equipment of the ''A" mill has been 
augmented and changed until its present capacity is 17,500 
barrels of flour daily. Surrounding are the machine shop, 
power house and mammoth elevators, with a storage capacity 
of 4,000,000 bushels of wheat. This combined group form 
what is now known as the East Side Milling District. 

The succeeding years since 1881 have proved to be years 
of success and progress. The Pillsbury Company has ex- 
panded its organization until today it has seven mammoth 
mills located in various parts of the country and capable of 
producing 40,000 barrels of flour daily. 

These mills represent the very highest type of milling 
equipment, in splendid physical condition and equipped with 
every device of the most advanced type known to milling 
science. To take care of the enormous output of these seven 
mills the company maintains branch ofiices in practically all 
of the principal cities of the United States and agents in 
nearly all of the countries abroad. 

In addition to the manufacture of flour the company has 
also developed an enormous business in packaged specialty 
foods, including Pancake Flour, Health Bran, Farina and 
(Vitos) Wheat Cereal. 

The present heads of this great enterprise are Mr. A. C. 
Loring, president and one of the most astute millers of the 
present day; Messrs. C. S. and J. S. Pillsbury, vice-presidents, 
and Mr. A. F. Pillsbury, treasurer, the three last named being 
descendants of the original founders of the business. 

These men have carried on the policy of conservatism typi- 
cal of the company's New England beginnings and it is the 
pervading spirit of the institution today. 



181 




The Battle of Battle 

Creek 

When Charles IVilliam Post Came From 
Texas to Battle Creek in the Early Nineties He 
Undertook a Venture That Required a Severe 
Stru^^le to Develop It to the Vast Business 
of Post Health Products That Exists Today 

Ix the early nineties there came from Texas to Battle Creek, 
Charles William Post, his finances depleted and his health 
broken. As he lay in the sunshine on the green grass of the 
Sanitarium lawn, his mind was busy translating his own physi- 
cal needs into the requirements of a people. 

This man knew the value of health because his health was 
gone. He foresaw the day when men and women would select 
their food with better understanding of its important relation 
to health. 

Mr. Post began the manufacture of Postum Cereal in Feb- 
ruary. 1895. 'The stf)ry of his early struggles with this product 

182 



is interesting in light of the successes which were to follow. 

The first Postum was made in "The Little White Barn" 
which is now the Laboratory of Standards for the great fac- 
tory which stands near its site. The factory force consisted of 
one man, who, under Mr. Post's direction, roasted Postum over 
a gasoline stove and stirred it by hand. 

Records show that the first purchases for plant equipment 
were: a second hand gasoline stove for roasting bran, a hand- 
operating peanut roaster for roasting wheat and a cofifee 
grinder to pulverize the mixture. The total cost of this equip- 
ment was $46.85. The first raw material purchases amounted 
to $1 1.90. 

The first payroll, in February, 1895, showed labor expenses 
for three weeks of $12.63, $21.46 and $27.65. 

Postum was first placed on sale in Grand Rapids, Michigan, 
where its inventor conducted store demonstrations, wrote 
advertising copy and contracted for newspaper space to exploit 
the new product. 

Sales first show upon the books in the early part of Feb- 
ruary, 1895, when it is recorded that a half dozen packages of 
Postum were distributed to each of several Battle Creek gro- 
cers. The total sales up to April 6th of that same year 
amounted to $856.41. During the first year operating ex- 
penses amounted to $800.00 in excess of gross receipts. 

The Company began to advertise in the first year of its 
history. The first advertising bill amounted to $1,669.84. 
From that time until the death of Mr. Post, in 1914, a period 
of 19 years, the Company invested over twelve million dollars 
in advertising. All of the early advertising was written by 
Mr. Post. Health was its theme and the copy was conspicu- 
ous for its clarity and its individuality. "There's a Reason" 
became a byword and "The Road to Wellville" was circu- 
lated by millions of copies. 

Postum proved quickly to be an article of seasonal sale with 
its peak in the Winter months. For obvious manufacturing 
reasons, therefore, Mr. Post cast about for a product that could 
be merchandised effectively in the Summer. He finally per- 
fected Grape-Nuts and launched this new food in 1898. 

183 




.1//-. C. ir. I'nsl 
l'i>n\idcr of I'osliiin Cereal Company 



Grape-Nuts was merchandised 
and advertised for its nutri- 
tional and healthful qualities. 

The husiness grew rapidlv 
and for several years the chief 
concern of Mr. Post was to ex- 
pand manufacturing facilitie:. 
and develop an organization to 
provide for and foster the stead- 
ily increasing demand for these 
products. \\'ith the growth in 
volume came manv improve- 
ments in methods and refine- 
ments of processes. Automatic 
machinery replaced hand work 
in the making and packaging of 
the goods. Operation was made continuous through the 
twenty-four hours of the day. 

In 1904 Mr. Post hegan to experiment with corn flakes, and 
ultimately named this product Post Toasties. 

In 191 ^ the product was improved by the development of a 
thick, crisp flake, now the popular breakfast food known as 
Post Toasties, the Double-Thick Corn Flakes that stay crisp 
in cream. 

In 191 I Instant Postum was introduced. It developed new 
outlets for this health beverage without interfering seriously 
with the established market for the original Postum Cereal. 

Post's Bran Flakes was the next new product to win a place 
of prominence on the grocer's shelf. This product, while not 
yet three years old, has become a leading bran food and con- 
tinues to show sales increases. Its success is now proof of the 
soundness and the scope of the fundamental idea on which the 
business was founded — Post Health Products. 



184 








Two Memorable Slogans 
and a Superior Product 

The Unsurpassed Excellence of Ivory Has 
h,ent Distinguished Opportunity to the Two 
Slogans That Have Made Advertising 
History-'' It Floats'' and ''99 44/100 Pure'' 

It is almost a century since William Procter left England to 
seek his fortune in the new world. 

With practically no capital or definite prospects of liveli- 
hood, this pioneer was not long in discovering an opportunity 
to employ that keen business acumen which was destined to 
build up a great American industry. In his boyhood days he 
had often dipped candles and rolled them out to make them 
smooth and even. Shortly after his arrival in Cincinnati, he 
found that candles were being imported from Philadelphia, 
at great cost of transportation and time. As tallow was to be 
had in abundance, he saw no reason for not manufacturing 
candles right in Cincinnati, and so he became both manufac- 
turer and merchant. 

185 



Mr. Procter early made the acquaintance of James Gam- 
ble, an Irishman, who was engaged in the manufacture of 
soap in a small way, and arranged with him to handle the 
selling of soap as well as his own candles. The two busi- 
nesses were closely allied in the matter of material, and it 
was only natural that a partnership should have arisen out 
of this first agreement. 

Thus, in 1837 was launched what has since become one of 
the most important and progressive industrial organizations 
of the United States. 

The soap business soon overshadowed the candle business 
and the new firm fast became a leader in this ever-growing 
field. In the early days soap was not put out under brand 
names. It was delivered to the storekeeper in bulk and sold 
bv weight, much as cheese is now, a piece being cut ofTf to suit 
the wishes of the purchaser. The alkali used was obtained 
from wood ashes. This gave a soft potassium soap. A solid 
soap was made from this by treating it with salt — a process 
called "salting out." 

The first factory, if such it may be called, was a small place 
across the alley from Mr. Procter's home, at Sixth and Main 
Streets, in Cincinnati. It is an interesting fact that the pres- 
ent main offices of the Procter & Gamble Company are in the 
Gwynne Building, on the site of the original plant. 

The late James N. Gamble, a son of the original James 
Gamble, has given us an account of the origin of Ivory Soap. 
It seems that the first intention was to make a soap of pure 
vegetable oils resembling castile soap. The firm bought the 
rights to such a soap from a group of men who were doing 
very little business and desired to sell the formula. They pro- 
ceeded according to the formula and obtained a white soap. 

The soap had no distinctive name at first and was merely 
called "White Soap." The members of the firm recognized 
the fact that it should have a distinctive name. They had 
several meetings to discuss the matter. One Sunday, when 
Mr. Harley Procter was attending services in the Episcopal 
Church of Mt. Auburn, Cincinnati, the passage which occurs 
in the eighth verse of the Forty-fifth Psalm was read: "All 

186 



thy garments smell of myrrh and aloes and cassia out of the 
ivory palaces whereby they have made thee glad." Imme- 
diately, the thought flashed through his mind: "There is the 
name!" He called the members of the firm together and the 
name 'Tvory" was adopted and registered in Washington. 
The first cake of Ivory Soap was sold in October, 1879. 

William Procter and James Gamble turned over to their 
sons a greatly expanded business. It had grown to such pro- 
portions in the '80s that it seemed advisable again to seek a 
new location, for the city had now grown up about their fac- 
tory in Central Avenue and limited its development at that 
place. In 1885 ground was broken for a new plant at what 
was later named Ivorydale, in the town of St. Bernard, about 
seven miles from the downtown section of Cincinnati. This 
a new departure in factory building. Instead of being merely 
utilitarian, the buildings were ornamentally constructed of 
gray stone, brick trimmed, and were erected with a view to 
architectural beauty. There were flower gardens and plots of 
well-kept lawn — truly an innovation. It is no wonder that 
the employees were proud of it and were glad to be known as 
part of the organization. 

The factory at Ivorydale now comprises about 112 acres, 
situated along Mill Creek and adjacent to the Big Four and 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroads. 

William Cooper Procter, who has been president of the 
company since his father's death in 1907, was graduated from 
Princeton in 1883. On leaving Princeton he immediately 
started to work in the factory, intent upon learning every 
phase of the operation of the business. Intimate contact with 
and sympathy for his fellow-workers led him to make pro- 
posals for some very radical changes, and these were very 
soon carried into efifect. 

The Saturday afternoon holiday, without reduction in pay, 
was adopted to give the employees more time for recreation 
and self-expression. This was probably the first time such 
action had been taken by any firm in the country. 

In the same year a plan was worked out for dividing profits 
with the employees. At first the employee received a divi- 

187 



dend check for profits in proportion to his wa^cs, but it was 
found that such payments were h)oked upon as waives and 
spent as sucli. Now these diviiiends are applied to the pur- 
chase of stock up to a certain amount, after which point the 
payments are matle in cash. 

In addition to this, Mr. Procter's genius for organization 
has brought about many other means of cementing the tie be- 
tween management and emph)yees. There is a pension and 
benefit phin, \\ hich provides weekly payments in case of sick- 
ness or disability, a pension for old age and a year's payment 
of wages in case of death. An employees' conference commit- 
tee was inaugurated some years ago. Each department elects 
a representative for every ^o employees. Now this idea has 
so developed that there are three representatives of the em- 
ployees among the twelve who comprise the board of direc- 
tors of the company. 

The latest move for the benefit of the employees in this 
great American industry is guaranteed employment, which 
means that the workers can depend on at least 48 weeks of 
employment during the year. This is perhaps the most im- 
portant step thus far taken, in that it banishes the employee's 
fear of unemployment. 

In all these movements toward greater self-expression and 
contentment among the employees the idea of paternalism is 
entirely absent. Nearly everything has been done to make the 
life of the employee pleasant and agreeable, to remove causes 
for discontent and worry without in any way interfering in 
his private life and personal affairs. 

The Procter & Gamble Company has shown a steady 
growth from the time it was founded, nearly a century ago. 
In 1900 there was just one plant at Ivorydale. Since then the 
Ivorydale plant has been enlarged and there are now fac- 
t(jries at Kansas City, Kan.; Port Ivory, Staten Island, N. Y. ; 
Hamilton, Ont. ; Macon, Ga., and Dallas, Tex. From very 
modest beginnings has developed this great, progressive in- 
dustry, whose products — especially Ivory Soap — are known 
and used even in the farthest corner of the globe. 



188 




The Red Can of Royal 

A Business Epic of the Discovery and Devel- 
opment of a Baking' Powder That Has Borne 
a Part in Serving the Needs and Pleasures 
of Nearly All the Peoples of the Earth 

The problem of leavening foods once presented very real 
difficulties to the housewife. For generations cakes were no 
more than yeast-raised bread dough enriched with sugar, fruit 
and dozens of eggs. 

Eventually quick-acting leavening agents were discovered, 
among them combinations such as pearlash and vinegar, or 
sour milk and soda. These methods were all highly uncer- 
tain in their results, due to the difficulty in proportioning them 
correctly. 

In 1855 "The Practical American Cook Book" published 
the discovery that baking soda and cream of tartar, used in 
correct proportions, made an ideal leavening combination. 
The unusual excellence of the cakes, biscuits and other baked 

189 



foods leavened with this combination brought it instantaneous 
popularity. 

Here, at last, w as a really satisfactory quick-acting leaven- 
ing agent, — but, unfortunately, it presented many of the same 
difficulties as did former combinations. The strengths of the 
two materials was a highly variable factor. To blend them 
correctly, and to get exactly the right proportion of each was 
a difficult and uncertain business. 

And then came a discovery which solved the problem. Out 
in Fort Wayne, Indiana, a firm of manufacturing chemists 
and druggists began to offer to housekeepers a combination of 
soda and cream of tartar, prepared by careful measure and 
exact rule, perfectly blended and balanced, and always ready 
for instant use. This product was called ROYAL BAKING 
POWDER. 

The success of Royal Baking Powder was immediate — its 
growth an epic of business expansion. It fulfilled a vital ncci 
in the homes of the land, changing home baking from a pre- 
carious and uncertain venture into a scientific and invariably 
satisfactory undertaking. 

From its humble beginnings. Royal Baking Powder has 
come to be a universally know^n and used leavening agent. In 
almost every country in the world you will find the red can 
of Royal in the kitchens of homes, hotels, schools, hospitals. 
Generations of fine housekeepers have used Royal, and taught 
their daughters to use it, telling them what Royal meant in 
terms of w^holesomeness, convenience and relief from all bak- 
ing failures. 

The purity of Royal is axiomatic. Its wholesomeness and 
healthfulness have been recognized and praised by doctors, 
dietitians, nurses and home economics teachers the world over. 
Where once eggs, butter, flour and other precious ingredients 
which w^ent into baked foods were jeopardized on the altar of 
capricious leavening agents, now, thanks to the reliability and 
accuracy of Royal, baking failures are practically eliminated. 

Royal Baking Powder enjoys the distinction of being the 
first food product to be both nationally and internationally 
advertised. ''The Roval Cook Book'\ translated into many 

190 



languages, holds an honored place in millions and millions of 
homes all over the world. 

The story of Royal is one of faithfulness and efficiency — 
for Royal has faithfully and efficiently served the peoples of 
every country on the face of the earth. Royal is no respecter 
of class — it has served equally well in the palaces of kings and 
in the huts of peasants. 

Royal served Commodore Peary on his expeditions to the 
North Pole; it was with Scott and Amundsen at the South 
Pole. When Stanley sought Livingstone in darkest Africa, 
Royal was a part of his stores. Royal has served on the warm 
sands of Sahara, on the slopes of the Andes and in the gold- 
fields of Alaska. It is a veteran of all the wars of recent times 
and a household necessity in millions upon millions of peace- 
ful homes. 



191 




Rumford: Giver of 
Phosphates 

The Story of the Discovery by Professor 
H or s ford, Rumford Professor at Harvard, 
of the Baking Powder That Restores the 
Lost Phosphates to the If^hite Flour from 
U hich M^e Make Bread and Cakes 

Bakixc; Pu\\DI:r in tliesc days is such a common requisite that 
it is hard for us to realize there was ever a time when it was 
not obtainable. Yet prior to the middle of the nineteenth cen- 
tury baking powder was an unknown quantity except as made 
up at home by the unscientific bleniling of an acid and an alkali 
with probably some filler added to prevent these two oppo- 
sites warring together and wasting their strength before being 
put to proper use as a leavening agent. 

The first phosphate baking powder was manufactured in 
1857, its inventor being Professor Eben N. Horsford, who was 
undoubtedly the first to produce a baking powder which not 
only leavened the flour with which it was used but which, at 
the same time, gave actual food value. For the mere leaven- 

192 



ing or raising of food products is not the only point to be con- 
sidered in a baking-powder — it must be actually wholesome, 
it should give definite food value. 

Professor Horsford turned all the energies of his scientific 
yet at the same time practical mentality to the successful manu- 
facture of world-useful commodities. He, by the way, occu- 
pied the Chair at Harvard University which was endowed by 
that famous man Sir Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford, a 
soldier and scientist, the Chair being known as the Rumford 
Professorship, and it was due to the fact that Professor Hors- 
ford was Rumford Professor that his baking powder was given 
the name "Rumford." 

Possibly few household products have been subjected to 
the searchlight of science as has baking powder and many 
wordy wars have raged around the subject. So many claims 
have been made for baking powders that it is not surprising 
that the thoughtful housewife eager to cater to the dietary 
needs of her family should have found it a difficult matter to 
decide which brand to use. The health claims of Rumford, 
all of which can be fully substantiated, make strong appeal to 
the woman of keen judgment who no longer demands just 
quantity of product for the least expenditure but who studies 
values of foods fully as much as values of currency. 

Rumford Baking Powder has adopted as its slogan "The 
Wholesome Baking Powder," basing this claim on the fact 
that not merely is it wholesome in itself but that it adds to the 
foods with which it is used those most vital and necessary 
phosphates which in our ignorance we so often delete from 
the grain in making the light white flour demanded for the 
production of equally white breads and cakes, for in removing 
the rich outer coatings from the wheat much nourishment is 
lost and through Rumford Baking Powder this is replaced in 
fully as great quantity as is natural to the wheat berry. 

Professor Horsford's tireless research finally resulted in 
the production of calcium acid phosphate — that same phos- 
phate which is an essential component of grains and meats 
used for food, and the further phosphate of soda, the very 
same phosphates which are still used as the acid ingredient 

193 




Mr. William L. Sivcct 

Treasurer and (General Maiiaf/cr 

The Ruiiiford Clioiiical Jl'orhs 



in the Rumford Baking Powder 
of today. It is an incontrovert- 
ible fact that phosphates are 
used up with every effort of the 
human system, whether that ef- 
fort be mental or phvsical, and 
these used phosphates must con- 
stantly be replenished for the 
proper maintenance of health. 

Naturally, after making this 
discovery. Professor Horsford 
tested it and obtained other sci- 
entific opinions as to it value, 
submitting his product to chem- 
ists of international fame, among 
whom was Baron Liebig, who, 
after testing it, pronounced the 

following judgment: "In my opinion, your discovery is of the 
utmost importance to mankind. You and the people are to be 
congratulated upon the pre-eminent success of your discovery." 

This was the beginning of Rumford Baking Powder, and 
in all the years since it was first manufactured nothing has 
been left to chance. The Rumford Company maintains re- 
search laboratories, where constant work is carried on in 
the interest of this and other products manufactured by the 
firm, whose business has grown from very small beginnings 
until Rumford is a family word not only in the United States 
but also in many foreign countries. The principal manufac- 
turing establishment is at the growing town of Rumford, 
Rhode Island, so called because of its principal industry — 
the manufacture of Rumford Baking Powder — while the 
printing plant, laboratories and business offices occupy build- 
ings covering more than an entire square in the city of Provi- 
dence itself. This home plant, however, is not large enough 
to cater to the demand for Rumford Baking Powder, and 
some years ago another complete baking powder plant was 
established at East St. Louis, Illinois. 



194 




Eighteen Highest Awards 

Seventeen Highest Awards Have 
Been Offered to the C. F, Sauer Com- 
pany at American and European 
Expositions — and an Eighteenth Has 
Been Added by the American Public 

In the year 1887 The C. F. Sauer Company, of Richmond, 
Virginia, commenced business in a small way in a little two- 
and-a-half-story building at the corner of Seventeenth and 
Broad Streets, and the business was to put up first-class flavor- 
ing extracts of all kinds for cooking and sweetening purposes. 
The business was at first purely local, but in time, and a 
very short time, the Sauer extracts became popular beyond 
the borders of Richmond, and in order to supply the grow- 

195 



ing demand in all parts of Virginia the company had to en- 
large the plant within two years. 

TIic hrst move was to Fourteenth and Main Streets, where 
a much larger huilding was secured, and the members of the 
hrm thougiit that in this large four-story building they were 
iixed for very many years to come. However, the business 
grew with rapid strides and was extended beyond the borders 
of \'irginia to other States, until the Sauer Flavors were 
known in more than half the States of the Union, and wher- 
ever known were popular, and retailers found them to be 
"fast sellers." 

In five years larger quarters and greater factory room be- 
came necessities, and this time the company bought the im- 
mense building which had once been used for a tobacco fac- 
tory on Twenty-first Street, between Main and Gary. The 
building was enlarged and remodeled and several additions 
were made, among them complete ofiice rooms. Here the 
company had more than doubled the former factory space, 
with ofiice space in addition, and thought they were perma- 
nently fixed. 

But in 1 910 it was found that the growth of the business 
and the extension of trade, until the Sauer goods were being 
sold in nearly every State in the Union, necessitated still 
larger and more up-to-date factory facilities. The company 
saw no sense in taking so many bites at a cherry and so they 
acquired, by cash purchase, ample grounds out on Broad 
Street, at the corner of Meadow Street, or, more properly 
speaking, at the corner of Hermitage Road. At this point 
a building (or rather three immense buildings in one) has 
been erected and especially equipped for the business. 

The magnificent four-story building is of reinforced con- 
crete, the whole being as near to fireproof as buildings can 
be made. 

The big house, or combination of houses, stands on a plot 
of ground that measures 210 feet on Broad Street, running 
back on Hermitage Road, or the continuation of Meadow 
Street, 300 feet. 

Railway side tracks come up to the west side of the build- 

196 



ing and all shipping is right from the ground floor to the 
cars and vice versa. The total floor space is 65,000 square 
feet, and every floor is equipped with the latest machinery, 
and some of it of the costliest kind, designed for the business 
in hand, and electric elevators connect the many floors. 

It may be explained that the Vanilla Bean, like Virginia 
Tobacco and Whiskey, improves with a certain amount of 
age. Hence, this plant was equipped with immense storage 
vaults for the vanilla bean, one of which is on the third floor. 
The others are on the lower floors. 

The vanilla bean is not a bean at all, but rather a herb as 
long as one's hand. It grows in various parts of the tropical 
world, being worth from $9 to $12 a pound at the present 
time. The company carries a large stock of beans, buying 
when it is probably a year old, and then storing it in these 
especially prepared vaults until the requisite age is acquired, 
when it is cut, compressed, squeezed and all of its rich ex- 
tracts withdrawn. 

The process of extracting the juices and all of the virtues 
of the vanilla bean is interesting to look upon, but to go into 
the details would make tedious reading matter. It is suffi- 
cient to say that very costly machinery, presses, boilers, cop- 
per and glass lined vats, sanitary pipes and other costly fix- 
tures are necessary to make a pure and complete extract, and 
it is probable that no establishment in the whole United States 
is better supplied with all of this equipment than the plant 
of the Sauer Company. 

In addition to Vanilla, The C. F. Sauer Company manu- 
factures a complete line of flavoring extracts that have won 
the Seventeen Highest Awards at American and European 
Expositions, and their line of spices is a complete one. 

Another department on the second floor consists of dress- 
ing rooms, a dining hall and a kitchen for the benefit of the 
many employees of the establishment. 

On the third and fourth floors is where the work of making 
these now famous extracts really begins. There are located 
the copper tanks, strainers, distilling vats and all of the manu- 
facturing apparatus. The juices are conveyed by sanitary 

197 



pipes through the whole process of manufacture, until the 
products reach the bottling stage on the lower floor, and the 
whole process is hurried along by electric power. 

In anotiier part of the three-divisioned building and that 
part known as "Building No. 3" is located the box factory, 
and here the company makes some of its own boxes for pack- 
ing purposes and here they also make their own display cases. 

This department is of itself quite an industry, employing 
many expert workmen. The boiler house is the fourth de- 
partment of this big establishment and, like all the other 
departments, it is equipped with twentieth century machinery. 

Most of these extracts made by the Sauer Company and 
shipped to all parts of the country are finally put up in small 
bottles that will almost fit into a vest pocket. It would be 
hard to estimate the number of bottles they use in a year. 

Several years ago, before the business had reached its pres- 
ent gigantic proportions, the company found that it w^as not 
wise to depend upon the glass bottle factories for their bottle 
stocks. Labor troubles and like annoyances came along too 
often, and so they planned for the manufacture of their own 
bottles. They bought a small glass factory that was doing 
a small business at the foot of Seventh Street and for many 
years thev have been making their ow^n bottles right here in 
Richmond. 

The growth of the extract business enlarged the glass fac- 
tory business and now that has become quite an industrial 
enterprise that Richmond is reasonably proud of and well 
it may be, for it employs a number of people. 

The C. F. Sauer Company also controls the policies of its 
subsidiary drug company. The American Laboratories, In- 
corporated, which offers a complete line of drugs, patent 
medicines, proprietaries, elixirs, syrups and fountain supplies. 

It is worthy of remark that there is no firm in Richmond 
that has been a bigger advertisement of the city and its advan- 
tages than this Sauer concern. The seventeen medals and 
awards won at great expositions in Europe and America evi- 
dence the superiority of the goods they make, and at the same 
time advertise Greater Richmond to all the world. 

198 




Of a Very Big Quarter- 
Cent 

The Difference in Cost Between a Plate 
of the Best Macaroni and the Poorest 
Is Only a Fourth of a Cent, a Margin 
of Excellence for fFhich the Skinner 
Manufacturing Company Spends 
Many Tens of Thousands of Dollars 

The Skinner Manufacturing Company started in a small 
way about ten years ago, and during these ten years the com- 
pany has had all the various troubles that other companies 
generally have in the first ten years of experience. However, 
in the beginning it was decided that the best raw material ob- 
tainable always be used in the products, with the idea that 
by following this policy at least a fairly good product must 
result. We believe it has resulted in this company always 
putting out the best possible macaroni products. 

Skinner's Macaroni cooks quickly, for the reason that it has 
a thin wall. Macaroni with a thin wall can only be made out 
of a high quality of amber durum flour running high in glu- 

199 



ten. Macaroni made out of cheap Hour will not hold together 
witliout a heavy wall. 

Because Skinner's Macaroni has the quality and is thin 
shelled it cooks quickly. We could save at this factory almost 
two hundred thousand dollars per year if we w^ere satisfied to 
otifer a cheap grade of macaroni. We could save perhaps a 
hundred thousand dollars a year if we were satisfied to ofifer 
anything but absolutely the highest quality. 

We ask anyone who has doubt in regard to the high quality 
of our goods to cook them according to directions along with 
any brand that they think might compare with the quality of 
the goods we ofifer. The proof of the pudding is "in the 
eating." 

The basis of macaroni is a wheat flour or a semolina, which 
is a coarse granulation of wheat, and of course some years the 
general grade of the wheat will be better than others. 

In addition to there being different grades of the same kind 
of wheat, there are also dififerent grades of durum wheat. As 
any market quotation will show you, the highest priced wdieat 
on the market for the last few years has been what is known 
as amber durum. Because of the high percentage of gluten 
in durum wheat it is now generally known that durum wheat 
is the best wheat to be used for macaroni products, and just 
as it is impossible to make a high grade macaroni from a poor 
qualitv of flour or a flour that does not have a large percentage 
of gluten, it is also just as impossible to get this flour unless 
you start out with the best possible grade of wheat. 

^^'hile a few years ago most macaroni manufacturers were 
using a soft wheat flour or a semolina, which is a coarse gran- 
ulation of wheat, today a great many manufacturers are using 
a durum wheat semolina or flour ; however, just as there are all 
kinds of grades of wheat, there are all kinds of grades of 
semolina or flour made from durum wheat. 

Skinner's Macaroni is made from a special high patent 
flour that is made from a semolina ground from absolutely 
the highest grade of amber durum wheat it is possible to 
secure. 

As a matter of fact, there are only two or three mills in this 

200 




Mr. Lloyd Skinner 

Manufacturer 

Skinner Macaroni Products 



country that are able to turn out 
the high quality which we de- 
mand. We buy our flour from 
the Pillsbury and Washburn- 
Crosby Mills, of Minneapolis. 
Our understanding with these 
mills is that they are shipping 
us only the best highest grade 
durum flour made from semo- 
lina from amber durum wheat. 
These goods are almost as 
clear as crystal, of a beautiful 
amber durum shade, have a fla- 
vor particularly their own, and 
it is only by the use of this high 
grade product that we are able 
to make a quick-cooking, thin- 
wall macaroni. 
The real thing in regard to a food product is the quality. 
We do not believe that anyone wants to eat unclean food or 
food made from poor raw material at any price. Macaroni is 
so cheap that anyone is entitled to the very best product, and it 
is so cheap that every factory should turn out the very best 
macaroni products it is possible to turn out. No factory 
should let the cost of raw material enter into the question 
at all. 

There is never a difference in the cost between a poor qual- 
ity of macaroni and a high quality of more than a cent per 
package. An individual will not eat more than perhaps one- 
fourth of a package at any one meal, and does any sane per- 
son want to argue that this one-fourth of a cent or price has 
anything to do with macaroni so far as the consumer is 
concerned? 

We cannot supply all the macaroni that the country needs, 
so we confine our energies to Skinner's the Superior Maca- 
roni Products. 



201 




A Story of Constructive 

Selling 

The Raisin Gi^owei's of California Have 
Educated the Public to an Appreciation 
of the Many, Many Uses of Their Prod- 
uct — and Sell More Than Five Times as 
Many Raisins as Before They Began 

Untold ages before man began to roughly inscribe a record 
of events on the walls of his cave dwelling some stone age 
man, no doubt, found quite by accident that his crop of wild 
grapes were most delicious after the sun had dried them on 
the vine. He may iiave learned that by picking and spread- 
ing them in the sun, where they could be watched, they dried 
more quickly and were less likely to be stolen by his neighbor. 
Raisins, that today are the most widely used and most im- 
portant dried fruit eaten by the American people, were one 
of the earliest fruit foods known to man. In some of the old- 
est books of the Bible raisins are mentioned as a valuable 
part of his diet. A subject of King David of Israel once 
brought "asses laden with cheeses and raisins" to pay his 

202 



taxes. The raisin industry was a flourishing business in an- 
cient Armenia, and we know that the Egyptians were fond 
of this fruit and considered it a great delicacy on their tables. 

As civilization moved westward, carried by the Phoenician 
seamen, those daring and courageous travelers of the ancient 
world, stores of this fine fruit food, which they had known for 
so long in their own land, were brought to the new shores at 
which their galleys touched. In this way the raisin industry 
was shown in new lands and in them it flourished and grew 
to large proportions. 

Less than fourscore years ago the first raisin grapes were 
planted in California, which today is the greatest raisin-pro- 
ducing district in all the world. The annual California raisin 
crop now amounts to more than 500,000,000 pounds every 
year. Until fifteen years ago, the State's yield totaled only 
about 150,000,000 to 200,000,000 pounds each season. 

But in this short space of time 17,000 raisin growers of that 
State, organized in their own cooperative marketing organi- 
zation, have, through carefully planned merchandising and 
advertising work, taught the American people, who have 
been accustomed to look on raisins principally as a holiday 
luxury, to be served at the end of a formal dinner, that 
raisins were really one of the finest fruit foods which they 
could use in their every-day cookery. 

Also, in the days of the raisin industry before the growers 
established their own marketing organization raisins were 
generally packed only in 25-pound wooden boxes, from which 
the retail grocer scooped out a pound or two to fill a cus- 
tomer's order. There was no standardized quality of pack, 
the housewife might get good-looking, attractive fruit one 
time and very poor quality raisins the next time she bought. 

The raisin growers were far-visioned enough to see that if 
they wished to build up a permanent market for their prod- 
uct they not only must educate housewives to appreciate 
the many ways in which raisins could be used in every-day 
home cooking, but they must guarantee to the housewife that 
every time she bought raisins she could be sure that she would 
get clean, attractive, uniformly good quality raisins. 

203 



The first thing the raisin growers did was to arbitrarily 
establish quality standards, which had to be met by every 
pound of fruit which was sold under their brands. Next, so 
that the raisins would reach the housewife looking just as 
fresh and appetizing as they did when they left the packing 
house, the growers began to pack their raisins in cartons, 
which protected the fruit from dust and dirt and kept it 
moist and soft until the moment it was opened for use by the 
housewife in her kitchen. 

With the quality of their product standardized and packed 
in a carton which would protect it clear through to the con- 
sumer, the raisin growers adopted as their trade mark brano 
"Sun-iNIaid" and began to advertise this name to a million of 
American housewives; but they did more than merely sell 
Sun-Maid raisins to these women; they taught them how rai- 
sins could be used to give added attractiveness and flavor to 
many common ordinary foods. Cereals with raisins for 
breakfast. Raisins in quick bread, muffins, biscuits and corn 
bread. Raisins in puddings, pies, cakes and cookies. 

Through consistent, continuous advertising, showing these 
tasteful dishes to them in full colors, the demand for raisins 
began to grow gradually and steadily. Year after year, raisins, 
which previouslv had been a highly seasonal grocery com- 
modity, began to be sold more and more throughout the en- 
tire year. The domestic consumption of raisins, which had 
been only a few thousand tons when the raisin growers began 
their campaign, has grown until today the California grow- 
ers are selling between five and six times as many raisins as 
they did less than two decades ago. 



204 




The Great Business of 
Gustavus Swift 

At 16, He Bought a Heifer and Made 
a Profit of Ten Dollars on the Dressed 
Meat. Today the Business He Founded 
Is Capitalized at $150,000,000 and Is 
One of the Great Enterprises of America 

When Gustavus F. Swift, aged fourteen, obtained a job in 
his brother's butcher shop in West Sandwich, Mass., he be- 
gan the foundation of the mighty business which bears his 
name. From that time on, each successive step enlarged his 
horizon and gave him a broader view of the possibilities in 
his chosen field. 

Mr. Swift's first adventure into business for himself was at 
the age of sixteen, when he bought a heifer, dressed it, and 
sold the meat for a profit of ten dollars. He advanced stead- 
ily, owning and operating butcher shops, buying and sell- 
ing cattle and always enlarging the scope of his operations 

205 



until he had exhausted the opportunities in that section of the 
country. 

Believing that the real future of the meat industry lay in 
Chicago, and driven by the determination to reach the top 
in his business, Mr. Swift journeyed to Chicago in 1875. For 
two years he operated as a cattle buyer and then, in 1877, he 
entered the meat-packing field. 

At this time pork curing and packing were the essential 
operations of the packing houses. Fresh meat was not han- 
dled for wide distribution. 

Then came the change that revolutionized the industry — 
the coming of the refrigerator car. Mr. Swift's perfecting of 
this means of shipment and his consequent successful intro- 
duction of Western dressed meat into the Eastern market 
were possibly his greatest contributions to the packing indus- 
try. The savings effected by this method of transporting beef 
were enormous, but the struggle was bitter. 

The railroads, the Eastern stock yards and butchers and a 
large part of the F^astern consuming public were opposed to 
the innovation Mr. Swift, personally and through his 
agents, fought against the barriers of self-interest and preju- 
dice and himself supervised the building and equipping of 
the cars in which the first shipments were made. 

One of the truly historic journeys in the history of the de- 
velopment of this country was that of the first carload of 
fresh meat to the East. When it arrived Herbert Barnes, 
who had contracted to receive the shipments, was waiting. 
Witli almost painful apprehension, he opened the car. The 
meat was in perfect condition. A new^ era in the packing in- 
dustry had begun. 

Gustavus F. Swift, the pioneer, now became Gustavus F. 
Swift, the organizer. With his brother, Edwin C. Swift, he 
covered the Eastern field, persuading the meat dealers to act 
as his agents or to enter a partnership. This policy of shar- 
ing the benefits of the new discovery won many friends for 
the company. 

The struggles and trials of this period were almost over- 
whelming. I'he refrigerator cars were far from perfect and 

206 



many losses were sustained. Mr. Swift's average day began 
at five o'clock, as he was doing the cattle buying for the firm, 
and ended at night over the books. He was pitted agamsi 
the ablest business brains of his day, many of them backed by 
far more capital than he could command. On his side he had 
great native shrewdness, wide vision, independence of judg- 
ment and an enormous capacity for work. 

Following the refrigerator car came the refrigerator ship, 
and to develop his English market Mr. Swift made no less 
than twenty trips to London. While there he made a practice 
of getting up every morning at three o'clock to go to the mar- 
ket and make sure his beef was well displayed. 

Operations of the company expanded, and in 1885 the firm 
was incorporated as Swift & Company, with a capital stock 
of $300,000. Mr. Swift became president and remained in 
that position until his death. In less than two years, so rapid 
was the development, the capital was increased to $3,000,000. 
In 1903, the last year of the founder's life, the capitalization 
had been increased to $25,000,000, a million dollars for each 
year of Mr. Swift's association with the meat-packing indus- 
try. The present capitalization is $150,000,000. The com- 
pany now employs about 50,000 persons, operates a fleet of 
7,000 refrigerator cars and has more than 500 plants and 
branch houses in the United States and Canada. 

Swift & Company's advertising has kept pace with its gen- 
eral growth. In 1893, the year of the World's Fair at Chicago, 
the company distributed lithographed cards, showing a Swift 
refrigerator car. That was one of the first attempts to get 
publicity. 

At present Swift & Company's advertising represents a total 
investment of many millions of dollars. The good-will thus 
created, while a very tangible asset, never has been capital- 
ized. Advertising goes on every day, every week and every 
month. It is not confined to one medium, nor to one group, 
but is so designed that it will reach the reader of the high- 
class magazines, the specialized newspaper reader, the trav- 
eler in the street car, elevated or subway train or the man who 
drives along the city streets. 

207 



Care has been taken to the end that the products shall 
themselves advertise tiie company. Swift & Company was 
the first to have chemists and bacteriologists work on the 
"cure" to obtain the best flavored ham and bacon possible to 
procure. Years of experimenting and innumerable tests were 
necessary before the perfect Premium "cure" was obtained. 
This was the first "cure" that, regardless of time of year or 
where the ham was purchased, eliminated the necessity of par- 
boiling the ham. Swift & Company was, naturally, the first 
to use the "NOT NECESSARY TO PARBOIL" tag. 

Having made the product as good as it was possible. Swift 
& Company turned attention to the wrapper, being the first 
to use the printed parchment wrapper. This not only insures 
that the flavor of the product is retained, but is also a means 
of identification. 

In many other directions Swift & Company has been a pio- 
neer. It was the first to realize the importance of having the 
plant and premises of the packing house clean and in sanitary 
condition, and to keep them so. Government inspection, con- 
ducted by the agents of the Department of Agriculture, gives 
assurance of wholesmoe food. 

Because of the quality of the products they represent, be- 
cause of the widespread distribution and extensive advertis- 
ing, "Premium," "Brookfield" and the other Swift brands 
are known throughout the civilized world. Travelers from 
far countries make Swift & Company their sight-seeing ob- 
jective in Chicago. 

Surely, Gustavus F. Swift, with all his foresight, would 
have been astonished could he have foreseen toward what he 
was building when, at fourteen, he entered his brother's 
butcher shop in West Sandwich. 



208 



The Can with the Little 
Red Devil 

Underwood's Deviled Ham Has Been 
Known to at Least Three Generations of 
Americans — and William Underwood, 
Founder of the Business, Sold Food 
Stuffs to Two Earlier Generations Still 

The art of hermetically preserving foods originated early in 
the nineteenth century with Nicholas Appert, a Frenchman. 
His method was published in London in 1812, and in 1817 
William Underwood left England for America, having served 
an apprenticeship in the trade of pickling and preserving 
with a London house. 

Mr. Underwood arrived in New Orleans, but not caring to 
settle there set out on foot to see the country and in search of 
a more suitable place in which to establish his business. It is 

209 



not known exactly when Mr. Underwood first began his trade, 
but in the year 1819 he arrived in Boston, having walked 
almost the entire distance from New Orleans and having been 
in every State at that time in the Union. In 1821 he was ship- 
ping goods to South America and in 1822 was selling fruit and 
berries in glass, as shown by entries in books of sales at that 
date. Damsons, (]uinces, currants and cranberries were the 
principal articles preserved in the first few years. The larger 
part of Mr. Underwood's business was in pickles, ketchups, 
sauces, jellies and jams. 

Like everything new, the early days of the canning industry 
were a continuous and, at times, a disheartening struggle 
against popular prejudice; in fact, Mr. Underwood's early 
sales in the United States were very small. Most of his goods 
went to foreign markets — India, Batavia, Hongkong, Gibral- 
tar, Manila, South America and the West Indies, but even 
then so great was the feeling against American goods that in 
manv instances Mr. Underwood's products had to be sold 
under an English label. 

It is a matter of record that in 1828 Mr. Underwood was 
preserving milk and shipping it to South America. Early in 
the thirties, pie fruits were added to the list, and in 1835, hav- 
ing imported the seed from England, Mr. Underwood began 
to pack tomatoes in bottles. Tomatoes at that time were lit- 
tle known in this country and by many were considered 
poison. 

Up to that time glass had been used exclusively, but in 1839 
Mr. Underwood began to substitute tin. The early methods 
of can-making were primitive and laborious, for every can was 
made bv hand. A tinker who could turn out sixty cans a day 
was a master workman and as much solder was used on one 
can as is used today on several dozen cans of the type in which 
any solder at all is used. 

In those days the word "cans" was not used. They were 
alwavs spoken of as "canisters," and the words "cans" and 
"can" are undoubtedly derived from the oft-repeated abbre- 
viations of the word "canisters," which appeared on the books 
and in the correspondence of the pioneers in the industry. 

210 




Mr. Henry O. Underwood 

forijier President and Treasurer 

Williani Underivood Company 



In 1844 Mr. Underwood es- 
tablished a lobster factory at 
Harpswell, Maine, and the first 
lobsters were boiled in a large 
iron pot set up on a tripod on the 
beach. In 1850 the firm was 
packing oysters in Boston, which 
found a ready sale in direct com- 
petition with Baltimore goods. 
A year or two later salmon was 
added to the line, and it is said 
that the first gold which was 
sent East from California came 
across the continent in one of 
Mr. Underwood's salmon tins. 
Underwood Deviled Ham, 
for which this company is best known today, originated shortly 
after the Civil War, as a result, no doubt, of the company's 
canned meats for the army, and the particularly delicious fla- 
vor of this product is attributable to the skill in blending spices 
developed in the early days when sauces and other condiments 
formed the bulk of the Underwood business. 

The history of the William Underwood Company is en- 
tirely lacking in the glamor and sensationalism of many other 
businesses which have grown to huge proportions almost over- 
night. It is imbued, nevertheless, with an atmosphere of 
antiquity and stability, and if it is true as a general proposi- 
tion that the highest-priced goods while usually the best have 
the smallest sale, the comparatively modest proportions to 
which the Underwood business has grown are due at least in 
part to the strict adherence to the principle that "the best is 
never too good"; yet, lest that remark should be misconstrued, 
let it be said that, as a result of constant development along 
scientific and hygienic lines, honesty of purpose and conscien- 
tious regard for the public welfare, there is probably not an 
industry today that is conducted on a higher plane than the 
food-canning industry in the United States. 



211 




Coffee on the Instant 

G. ff Washington's Coffee Is Both Good 
Coffee and Instaiitly Prepai'able—and 
Has Many Other Uses as a Flavof^- 
in^ with Which Its Advertising Is 
Rapidly Acquainting the Public 

One hundred and fifty years ago a revolution took place in 
which George Washington played a leading part. In the 
present century a revolution in the method of preparing cofifee 
has occurred. A modern George Washington, a descendant of 
the Washington family of Sulgrave Manor, from which the 
father of his country sprang, has been the prime mover. A 
native of Belgium, his early life was surrounded by the 
color and romance of the fascinating country. Residence in 
Central America, as a large cofifee grower, led to a study of the 
possibilities for cofifee refining. As inventor and chemist, 
research held for him an absorbing interest. 

Finally, after much experimental work, a problem which 
had long baffled other investigators was solved. Jn 1909, 

212 



coffee, in both powdered and crystallized form, soluble in hot 
and cold water, with the non-essential properties, such as fibre 
and acids, eliminated, was placed on the market. 

It was an untried and unheard of article of food. Today it 
is a staple on dealers' shelves the world over. It is a boon to 
travelers on train or boat, and especially to tourists in Europe, 
where it is often difficult to procure coffee suited to American 
taste. A postcard from a shelter on a mountain peak in China, 
where bandits had imprisoned a group of Americans, told of 
the comfort their can of Washington Coffee afforded the vic- 
tims. A picture of the noted African explorer, Mr. Martin 
Johnson, and his party encamped in the jungle, with his can 
of G. Washington's Coffee prominently in the foreground, is 
typical of the high regard in which the product is held by 
men engaged in exploration work. 

For camping, for cruising, for afternoon or evening func- 
tions, for the teacher and the student, for the most elaborate 
household or the simplest "light housekeeping" menage, it is 
equally serviceable. 

Perhaps no other change in the world of food preparation 
has been so important. G. Washington's Delicious, Instant 
Coffee may best be compared to refined sugar. It bears the 
same relationship to the coffee bean that refined sugar does to 
the sugar cane. Just as the sugar refiners use the soluble part 
of the sugar cane, eliminating the fibre, ash and other non- 
soluble parts of the cane — so Mr. Washington uses only the 
soluble part of the coffee bean and eliminates the insoluble 
fibre, acids and phenols that are part of the coffee berry, pro- 
ducing a powdered crvstal that dissolves instantly in either 
hot or cold liquids. 

It is a healthful drink with all the stimulating advantages 
of the old-fashioned method with none of the undesirable 
effects. It is free from chicory or any other adulterant. Its 
soluble, concentrated form, due to the elimination of the chaff 
and by-products which compose the grounds of the coffee pot 
product, makes for convenience. Its easy preparation, at the 
table, one cup at a time, weak or strong as desired, without 
boiling or percolating, is a feature deserving consideration. 

213 



During the war it comforted many a weary soldier. Tn 
19 1 4 it accompanied the first contingent of Canadian troops 
overseas and was used by that Army through the war up to 
1 9 1 7, when America entered the war. After this the G. Wash- 
ington Coffee Refining Company had only one customer, for 
the Government took the entire output. A quarter of an 
ounce of G. Washington's Coffee, double strength, was packed 
in a heavv envelope. Twenty-four of these containers were 
placed in a vacuum sealed can and packed in a galvanized iron 
box, which also held other rations for twenty-four men. These 
boxes were stored directly back of the front line, thus furnish- 
ing sustaining food and drink in emergencies, when delay arose 
in bringing up other supplies. 

The uses of G. Washington's Coffee are manifold. It can 
be used as a comforting hot drink, as an iced beverage of 
delicious coolness for a summer day, as flavoring for desserts, 
creams, ices, pastries, cake filling and a whole repertoire of 
delicious candies. 

Recognizing tlie untried possibilities of the coffee in this 
field of dessert flavoring, the G. Washington Coffee Refining 
Companv introduced an interesting competition, beginning in 
October, 1924, and ending with December, offering $1,000 in 
cash prizes, for new ways of using G. Washington's Delicious, 
Instant Coffee as a flavoring in desserts and candies. 

Twentv thousand recipes were received from all over the 
countrv and from the far-away Orient, the third prize of 
$75.00 going to Mrs. H. B. Graybill, living in Canton, China. 

The G. Washington Coffee Refining Company have, since 
the beginning, carried on their label an unqualified guarantee 
of satisfaction, assuring the consumer of absolute protection 
on evcrv purchase. Today, its distribution is world-wide. 



214 




Pure Juice of the Concord 

Grape 

ColorfuU Appetizingy Health-Giving 
It Is Little IVonder That JVelcVs 
Grape Juice, Speeded On by the Force 
of Advertising, Has Ho 71 the Right 
to Its Claim, ^' The National Drink" 

The Dew of the Morning rests upon my Leaves and Clusters. 

The Heat of Noon distills for me the Juice that all Men love. 

My clusters wax fat ; they catch the Purple of the Autumn Sunset. 

I become a Mystery and a Marvel, for no Man may Imitate me. 

There is no Depth of Wisdom nor Height of Inspiration, nor is there any 

Avenue of Science which can achieve what Nature Achieves in Me. 

****** * 

I am the Concord Grape. 

—Wilbur D. Nesbit. 
In old, historic Concord, Massachusetts, still stands the origi- 
nal Concord grapevine, where it was planted by its producer, 
Ephraim Bull, in the year 1849. The inscription on a stone 

215 



tablet at the garden entrance to the home, now named the 
"Grapevine Cottage," tells the romantic story of how this aged 
vine was grown from an American wild-grape seedling which 
its owner found in the corner of the garden. 

Neighbor and contemporary of Henry Thoreau, Ralph 
Waldo Emerson, Bronson Alcott and Nathaniel Hawthorne, 
Ephraim Bull was both a worker and an idealist, a lover of 
Nature at her best. It was not just simple transplanting, but 
the most painstaking cultivation and selective experimentation 
over a period of many years that transformed this wild seed- 
ling into the perfect fruit. 

BulTs idea was to produce a grape which perfectly com- 
bined appetizing color, fragrance and a flavor of balanced tart- 
sweetness that would at once outrank for table use the over- 
sweet wine grape and puckery varieties. The fame of the per- 
fection of the Concord grape spread rapidly, and in a few 
years it was being grown on a commercial scale in the States 
of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York, Michigan and Ohio. 

Welch's Grape Juice is just the pure juice of these perfect 
grapes scientifically pressed out, pasteurized and sealed in 
glass with a speed and cleanliness which preserve, unchanged, 
their color, fragrance and tart-sweet balance of flavor. 
Welch's was the first commercial grape juice. 

Dr. T. B. Welch was a dentist. He believed that "unfer- 
mented wine" was scriptural and preferable for communion 
purposes to wine which contained alcohol. When he was 
delegated to provide the communion wine for his church he 
determined that it should be wine without alcohol. And so, 
in 1869, with the aid of his son. Dr. C. E. Welch, also a den- 
tist, he pressed out by hand in the family kitchen, in Vine- 
land, N. J., the first dozen bottles. Thus the Methodist 
Church in the little village of Vineland was the first church 
to use unfermented wine for communion. It was called "Dr. 
Welch's Unfermented Wine." The home kitchen continued 
for several years to be the only factory. 

To Dr. T. B. Welch its possibilities were limited to its use 
as communion wine. 

Dr. C. E. Welch, the son, however, saw in it a wide range 

216 



of usefulness. In its wealth of nutrition and ease of diges- 
tion he saw an aid to the hospital and physician, a boon to the 
sick and convalescent; and in its healthfulness and refreshing 
flavor he caught his first vision of "the national drink" — a 
dream which his courageous faith and tireless effort through 
the early trying years have made come true. 

The first sales and advertising effort consisted of circular- 
izing a limited but carefully selected list of churches, hospi- 
tals and physicians scattered over a wide territory. The next 
was small space in church and medical papers. Then came 
the first salesman, and later more salesmen and more adver- 
tising. The stage of Welch national consumer advertising 
was reached in 1893, ^he year of the World's Fair in Chicago, 
and thus made Welch one of the pioneers in the field of 
national advertising. Since then, year after year, a constant 
policy of national advertising has been maintained. 

Results came steadily, but not quickly. Building the Welch 
business has been the work of a lifetime. Between 1869 and 
1895, increasing volume of business necessitated two successive 
moves into larger manufacturing quarters, and the business 
was finally located, in 1897, at Westfield, New York, in the 
heart of the Chautauqua grape belt. Since then, Welch plants 
have been located throughout the Great Lakes Concord grape 
region; at North East, Pa.; Lawton, Mich., and St. Catha- 
rines, Ontario, and recently an entirely new Concord grape 
belt of 15,000 acres has been promoted by the company and a 
plant located at Springdale, in the Ozark region of north- 
western Arkansas. 

This fifty-year business growth can be best expressed in 
terms of the increase in quantity of grapes used: From 40 
pounds in 1869, to 4 tons in 1879; 10 tons in 1889; 660 tons 
in 1899; 3,980 tons in 1909, and 17,000 tons in 1919. 

Conscientious maintenance of the highest quality standards 
in manufacturing, a policy of absolute fairness in prices — 
made by basing prices on actual costs and quality regardless of 
what others were doing — and consistent and truthful advertis- 
ing accompanied this progress every step of the way. 

The larger organization now required to carry on the busi- 

217 



ness includes Dr. C. E. \\'elch's four sons, who have been 
actively associated in the management for a number of years. 

As Welch prices are fair prices, based on actual costs, the 
important role which advertising has played in bringing 
down the cost of \A'elch's by increasing volume of produc- 
tion stands out almost startlingly in the following figures: 

In 1873, price per ton of grapes, $10.00; trade price per 
case of 12 i]uarts, $12.00. In 1923, price per ton of grapes, 
$56.00; trade price per case of 12 quarts, $6.75. 

Between 1873 and 1913 the nearly 662-3% decrease in 
price, in the face of 350% increase in cost of raw materials 
(not counting bottles and packing material), was due to the 
economies of large-scale production, largely made possible 
by advertising. The approximately 60% higher list in 1923 
(from the low list of 1913), which is still in effect, is a war- 
time hangover made necessary by the additional increase of 
60% in grape prices in 1923, compared with 191 3, accom- 
panied bv proportionate increases in cost of glass bottles, other 
packing materials and labor. 

As the organization expanded, always standing in the fore 
in each organized effort was the original ideal of benefit, 
usefulness and service. 

An article written about Welch's in 191 5, which is as true 
now as it was then, only more so, started thus: 

"Every time a merchant delivers an order of grape juice 
to a home, every time a merchant sells a glass of it at his foun- 
tain, he should 'Thank Welch.' 

"Welch created the grape juice market. This was done by 
educating the public to drink grape juice. 

"Today, when grape juice is a staple, when there is scarcely 
a nook or corner in the country where it is not on sale, it is 
hard to realize that there ever was a time when it was a 
n(welty. 

"Yet there were years during which Welch stood alone — 
advertising, advertising, advertising!'' 



218 




The Golden Heart of 
the Wheat 

Distinctive in Retaining the Rich Energy- 
Giving but Easily Spoiled Center of the 
Wheat, IVheatena Has, with the Power 
of Advertising, Gained a Pre-Eminent 
Place Among the Nation's Cereals 

It is natural to infer that a product which has met with such 
universal favor as Wheatena — the whole wheat food with 
the delicious flavor — should have an interesting history. And 
Wheatena has exactly that! 

Forty-six years ago, Wheatena was being sold in a small 
way in a New York store by one George H. Hoyt, a man who 
conceived the idea that a perfect food could be produced from 
wheat by a special process of preparing the grain. 

A few years later he sold his business to Dr. Frank Fuller, 
the originator of the Health Food Company, who had devel- 
oped many important and original products — among them 
some excellent wheat preparations. 

219 



Dr. Fuller was a physician who had spent his entire life in 
studying food problems and who saw even then the increased 
nutritive value of wheat when properly prepared. 

He saw some advantages in Hoyt's product, and other ad- 
vantages in a wheat product he was preparing. He combined 
the good points of both, and thus, over 40 years ago, produced 
\Mieatena in its present form. So well did Dr. Fuller do his 
work that there has been little need to change Wheatena in 
any respect since that time. 

Indeed, with each succeeding year the popularity of 
\Mieatena has increased to such an extent that millions of 
packages are now sold every year. 

Back in the early 'Sos, cereals were usually sold in bulk to 
the retailer, who would buy in barrel lots and sell a pound 
or two at a time to a customer. Cracked wheat, oatmeal and 
cerealine were then the principal cereals sold. That was at 
a time when the sanitary w^rapping of food products was 
given comparative! V little attention. 

Wheatena, appearing then in package form, met with im- 
mediate favor and received a cordial reception from the buy- 
ing public. 

This is characteristic of the up-to-date policy pursued by 
The Wheatena Company from its inception to the present 
day. 

Long before the use of modern concrete daylight buildings 
for industrial purposes became general, \Mieatena was being 
prepared in this type of buildings, where the sunlight plays 
with the golden grains of selected winter wheat as they are be- 
ing transformed into the delicious and nourishing wdiole wheat 
granules of Wheatena. But what is the fundamental reason 
for the success of this distinctive whole wheat product, 
Wheatena, you may ask. 

This lies in the product itself, and in the exclusive Wheatena 
method of preparing it. 

I'he little golden heart of the wheat, that portion of the 
grain which contains the active life principle, is known for its 
sweet, flavory, nut-like (]uality. But because the heart is apt 
to spoil more readily than the rest oi the grain this part has 

220 



been omitted, as a general thing, from products made of 
wheat. 

The Wheatena process, however, is successful in retaining 
the sweet golden heart of the wheat, so rich in delightful fla- 
vor and energy-giving quality. 

While preserving all the other health-sustaining, body- 
building elements of whole wheat, the valuable addition of 
this little golden heart gives Wheatena its distinctive flavor, its 
extra nutriment and its plus value in helping to add golden 
years to lives. 

In the homes of the nation every morning Wheatena is 
being relished by millions of children and grown-ups. This 
is because of its delicious flavor, its ease in digesting and its 
high nutritive value, and because The Wheatena Company 
has brought it to their attention persistently. 

A new era in the development of Wheatena sales was expe- 
rienced when, in 1903, The Wheatena Company was incorpo- 
rated and confined its attention solely to the one product— 
Wheatena. 

A steady, consistent plan of spending a certain part of the 
earnings each year for advertising purposes was early inaugu- 
rated by The Wheatena Company, and has continued all these 

years. 

Various forms of advertising were adopted, but the bulk of 
the appropriations has been spent in sampling and in maga- 
zine advertising. 

The Wheatena message is now being carried into the homes 
of every city, town and village in the United States through 
the leading magazines of the country. Month after month, 
more millions are learning the value of delicious Wheatena— 
the whole wheat food that gives abundant energy for work 
or play and helps add golden years to lives. 



221 




The Candy That Grew Up 

Oh Henry I Started u t hi Life as a 
Popular Chewiji^ Cajidy. Now It Has 
Earned for Itself a Social Standing on a 
Parity with the Highest Priced Candies 

One summer evening in 1914, a candy salesman, George H. 
Williamson by name, stood in West Madison Street, in the 
"Loop" in Chicago, looking into the unlighted windows of an 
empty store . . . looking and wondering. 

For several years he had been selling for a candy broker in 
Chicago and vicinity. He knew little of how candy was 
made, and for nearly a year had had in mind opening a store 
unlike any store that he had ever seen. He was scarcely past 
the voting age. but he had youth's burning ambition to "be in 
for himself." And. also, he had $f,ooo! 

This $1,000 was perhaps the reason for his wondering as 
he looked into the empty store. That afternoon he had signed 
a lease for the store and paid $750 of his $1,000 for one 
month's rent. 



999 



The store was opened. The second day the pavement was 
torn up for repairs, and the only entrance to the store was 
over a shimmying plank from curb to door. But in spite of 
this and other handicaps the store prospered. 

Of course, it was a little store. Williamson was the entire 
staff himself. He made the candies, most of them, in a little 
kitchen in the rear. He was salesman through the day and 
janitor at night. He dressed the windows and decorated the 
store. But month by month the increasing sales proved that 
Williamson knew how to retail candy. 

As more and more people came into the store, he began to 
study what they liked in candy . . . the tastes they preferred 
. . . the quantity they bought . . . the prices they paid. He 
talked candy to them, learned what they liked, and why. And 
then, in the evenings, after he had closed the store, he used to 
go into the little kitchen and experiment with new candies, 
using the information he had gathered during the day. 

Early in his study of consumers' candy preferences he dis- 
covered that quality was all-important. Taste might make 
the intial sale, but it took quality to make a second sale. So in 
every candy that he made quality came first. If the couldn't 
make a candy of the quality he wanted and sell it for a nickel 
he raised the price. It had to have quality. He knew people 
would rather pay more for a finer candy. 

Gradually, he became more interested in the manufacture 
of candy than in retailing. He began to sell to others stores, 
and in 1919 the stores were closed and the Williamson Candy 
Company was organized to manufacture candy. 

When he began manufacturing he continued to produce 
some of the candies that had been popular in his stores. Pres- 
ently, one of the candies began to show larger orders than 
usual. Unsolicited orders came in from jobbers in Illinois, 
Michigan and Wisconsin. This was the now famous Oh 
Henry! Mr. Williamson began to watch it. He had always 
felt that the proper blend of tastes, together with quality, 
might produce a national brand of candy. Was this it? 

Month by month, the increasing sales of Oh Henry! con- 
vinced Mr. Williamson that Oh Henry! had the latent possi- 

223 



bilities of a national brand of candy. So he made another 
radical decision. He stopped manufacturing every other 
candy except Oh Henry! His salesmen protested, but he 
knew that to produce in national quantities and maintain the 
high cjuality of Oh Henry! he had to devote his resources to 
Oh Henry! alone. 

^^'hen imitation showed up, lured by Oh Henry !'s spec- 
tacular success, still another decision of major importance in 
the history of Oh Henry! was made. No candy manufacturer 
of 5-ccnt and lo-cent goods spent money on advertising them. 
The tradition is that the public is fickle and that no candy can 
last over one or two seasons. But Mr. Williamson knew 
from retail store days that quality sticks in the consumer's 
mind. So he started to tell people how good Oh Henry! was. 

At first he used only newspapers in one or two cities. In 
1925 Oh Henry! is advertised in the newspapers of 199 cities, 
with posting in most of them, signs on the important high- 
ways, and many other forms of advertising. 

In 1925 the magazines came into the picture. Oh Henry! 
had begun to change the nation's candy habits. Oh Henry! 
was the first candy with a volume of sale that allowed the 
manufacturer to give quality rivaling the more expensive 
chocolates in the handv lo-cent size. This combination of 
quality with convenience began to take Oh Henry! into the 
home. A couple of years ago it had been discovered that 
women in Chicago were slicing Oh Henry! and serving it at 
parties as they served chocolates. They liked the quality of 
the candy. And that is the story the magazines are now tell- 
ing 11,000,000 women. 

The story of the success is always fascinating. But how it 
started, the people in it, the hopes and the ambitions . . . 
they are still more fascinating. And it is for that reason that 
the little West Madison Street store belongs in the Oh Henry! 
picture. It was in that store that George Williamson learned 
what people w^ant in candy . . . there he learned the retail- 
er's side of selling candy . . . there he learned that people 
will pay for quality. 



224 



^^